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Albania

Yearbook 2002

2002 AlbaniaAlbania. Despite attempts to reach a consensus, the year was turbulent in Albania, which repeatedly changed the head of government.

In January, Socialist Prime Minister Ilir Meta resigned because of conflicts with his party leader, Fatos Nano. The opposition, which had boycotted Parliament following allegations of electoral fraud, welcomed Meta's decision and took its seats in the Assembly. Meta's representative and party mate Pandeli Majko formed a new government in February.

Before the June presidential election, the government and opposition agreed on a single candidate, General Alfred Moisiu. Nano wanted to have the post himself but met resistance from his arch rival, the president Sali Berisha. Both were urged by Western powers to unite and not jeopardize stability, especially given the country's desire to become a candidate country for the EU.

When Moisiu took office at the end of July, Majko resigned and the president appointed Nano a new prime minister, a post he previously held. As part of a promised fight against corruption, Nano dismissed the country's police, customs and tax chiefs after taking office.

According to Countryaah website, Leka Zog returned to Albania after an amnesty was issued. The son of King Zog, who was ousted by the Communists in 1946, had returned in 1997 but was soon forced to flee again after a failed attempt to restore the monarchy.

2002 Albania

The Albanians consider themselves descendants of the Illyrians. A people who in ancient times lived in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. However, this is a view that many scholars outside Albania do not share, and the origin of the Albanians cannot be considered clear. The Albanian language is completely isolated within the Indo-European language family. Based on, among other things, linguistic and anthropological criteria, the Albanians are divided into two groups: Ghegers and Tusks. Ghegars (67%) are located in Northern Albania and in the Kosovo region of Yugoslavia (about ½ million). The Tusks live south of the river Shkumbi, and also live approx. 100,000 in Greece and approx. 100,000 in Italy (Sicily, Calabria). Ghegian and Tuscan are two separate dialects. But the main difference between the Ghegians and the fools lies in their traditional occupation and social organization. The Ghegans live scattered in inaccessible mountain areas and have traditionally been feeding on cattle farming. For centuries, they have lived in isolation from the outside world and received little influence from outside. Nor did the Turks ever get full control of this area. The Ghegians have up to this point maintained a primitive patriarchal tribal system. The chiefs of each tribe settled disputes, arranged marriages and punished. Characteristic of the Ghegians was the blood-vengeance, which is not yet completely eradicated. Even in the 1920's, 20% of deaths among the male population were due to blood revenge. The Tusks, on the other hand, have more similarities to the other peoples of the Balkans. They live in compact villages, and have traditionally nourished themselves by farming. Until 1945, this part of the country was dominated by Ottoman feudalism, where the landlords were most often Muslims and the rural workers were predominantly Christian. The Tusks have always been more accessible to outside influences, and new ideas and ideas have most often penetrated Albania through this region. Also, in religious terms, Albanians have been divided into several groups. The overwhelming majority were Muslims (70%) who were divided into two groups. The Ghegans in the north were Orthodox Sunni Muslims, while the fools in the south were predominantly professors. The Christians constituted 30%, 20% of them were Grecian Orthodox Tusks, and 10% were Catholic heretics around the city of Shkodėr.

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