Argentina. President Eduardo Duhalde bowed to public opinion and announced in July that the presidential election should be scheduled for six months and held March 30, 2003. According to Countryaah website, national day of Argentina is every July 9. The Peronist Party (Partido Justicialista) is deeply divided before the election. For example, President Duhale’s faction succeeded. postpone the party’s primary election to January 19, 2003 by boycotting the opposition factions, including that led by party leader and former president Carlos Menem, on November 5.
In September, for lack of evidence, Menem was released for the third time from charges of arms smuggling to Croatia and Ecuador during his tenure as president, and which previously led to house arrest for six months in 2001. In June, former economist Domingo Cavallo had been released from jail where he sat because of similar charges. But in July, another scandal hit Menem; In an interview, he was forced to admit to holding a Swiss bank account where, according to the critics, bribes from Iran are deposited. The money must have been a payment for darkening Iranian involvement in a terrorist attack against Jews in Buenos Aires 1986
At the same time as the electoral movement began, confidence in the political establishment is very low. On August 30, protest marches were held with thousands of participants around the country under the motto “Que se vayan todos” (young. ‘Out with all politicians’), and the following day an opinion poll was published in which 60% of the respondents suspected the politicians’ ability and willingness to sort out the economic crisis.
But the four-year bleak financial situation seemed to start to fluctuate during the year. Economic activities, exports and bank assets increased, and the exchange rate was relatively stable. At the same time, the economic crisis has left deep social footprints, especially in the already poor northwestern provinces, and purchasing power decreased by 30%. On June 26, two protesters were shot dead and 17 injured in a suburb of Buenos Aires in connection with a union demonstration. The measures taken by new economist Roberto Lavagna, who succeeded Jorge Remes Lenicov in April, to improve the situation – a temporary reduction in VAT and increase wages and minimum pension – were met by skepticism from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The government declared that only the interest on the $ 805 million that was due November 14 would be paid out due to the small foreign exchange reserve. In late September, the Governor of San Juan, Alfredo Avelín, was dismissed by the provincial assembly for failing to fulfill his public duties. Among other things, school education in the heavily indebted province had been suspended for three months and public employees had not received any salary since May due to lack of resources.
The 1989 election campaign was between Alfonsín’s successor Eduardo Angeloz and the Peronist party’s Carlos Saúl Menem. Expectations of populist Peronist rhetoric had a breakthrough among the working class, and Menem won the election. Instead of focusing on a nationalist state-directed economy, Menem advocated a dramatic restructuring of the economy to satisfy the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After a new military rebellion in 1990, Menem gave amnesty to the convicted protagonists of “the dirty war” in an attempt at national reconciliation.
Support for Menem’s policy could be recorded by the progress of the Peronist Party in the local elections in 1991. Menem also went to the brink of establishing a Common Market (MERCOSUR) with Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. In 1993, Alfonsín’s Radical Party (UCR) and the Menem Justice Party (PJ) joined an alliance that excluded almost all opposition. The rebel Aldo Rico led a minority party based on the interests of the military, and Menem thus managed to bring the military under political control.
Menem had to endure a lot of criticism for the increasing institutionalized corruption and gradual political control of the judiciary and business, despite a radical wave of privatization. Menem, like its Mexican presidential colleague Salinas (1988–94), made vigorous attempts to step into the ranks of the industrialized rich countries and therefore pursued a very US-friendly policy.