Cuba 2002

Yearbook 2002

Cuba. Former US President Jimmy Carter, as a representative of the Carter Center, made a five-day visit to Cuba in May to explore the potential for diminished tension between the two countries. He was allowed to give a live television talk in which he, among other things, urged the authorities to grant permission to the Red Cross and the UN human rights body to investigate the conditions in the country’s prisons and the treatment of the so-called prisoners of conscience.

Already in April, the UN human rights body had criticized in a resolution the lack of respect for human rights in Cuba. Carter was also allowed to speak to the so-called Varela project leader Oswaldo Payá, a dissident who, through a name-gathering campaign, tries to bring about constitutional changes to freedom of expression, political amnesty, the right to private enterprise and direct elections to public office.

In July, the National Assembly approved a constitutional extension declaring socialism unchangeable in Cuba – a response to US President George W. Bush’s statement in May on “the axis of evil,” which included Cuba with North Korea, Iran and Iraq.

The former leader of the US Environmental Party, Ralph Nader, also visited Cuba during the year and called for a marathon at the University of Havana to end the embargo on Cuba.

On November 12, the UN General Assembly voted 173 against 3 for not respecting the US embargo on Cuba. According to Countryaah website, national day of Cuba is every October 10. The United States, for its part, calls for democratic elections in Cuba for the lifting of the embargo. However, raising the embargo would, according to US sources, bring great economic benefits to the United States.

Cuba Border Countries Map

1953 Starts for the Cuban Revolution

On July 26, 1953, Fidel organized Castroa 135-member resistance group in an attack on the Moncada military base in Santiago, eastern Cuba. The attack was fought back, many killed and the survivors taken prisoner. The lawsuit against the move gave Castro propaganda for the revolution, and his famous defense speech, “History Will Clear Me” became a political program for “26. the July Movement ”(M-26), which until the Revolution was reformist and nationalist – not socialist. Castro was granted amnesty after two years in captivity, traveled to Mexico, and organized a new revolutionary group returning to Cuba by boat “Granma”, and launched guerrilla combat in the Sierra Maestra Mountains in the easternmost part of the country. The resistance struggle spread across the country, and during 1958 the guerrilla won a number of crucial military victories over the otherwise superior Batista forces. Batista was forced to flee the country on New Year’s Eve 1958-59, while guerilla forces led byErnesto “Che” Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos approached Habana. In just 2 years, Castro’s July 26 movement had demoralized Batista’s corrupt army.

Revolution movement

The Communist Party (PSP), which even participated in the government during Batista’s first regime (1938-44), stood in opposition to Batista from 1952, but clearly opposed armed resistance. Only in early 1958 did the party contact the guerrillas in Sierra Maestra. The first time after the revolution there was a strong contradiction between PSP and «26. the July Movement ‘, which had a very complex class base – peasants, workers, and petty citizens. But gradually the social reformist became ’26. July Movement »radicalized, and in 1961 Castro said its ideology was Marxist-Leninist. The reason for the radicalization was not least that the class contradictions were still sharpened by the structural changes brought about by the revolution. The same year an attempt was made to merge PSP and «26. July Movement ”, in the Organizaciones Revolucionarias Integradas (ORI, The All-Revolutionary Organizations), but this project was initially marked by strong contradictions. Among other things, Castro accused the PSP of abusing ORI to strengthen its position. In 1962, a joint party was formed, the Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista (PURSC, the Unity Party of the Socialist Revolution), which in 1965 was reorganized into the Cuban Communist Party (PCC), with Castro as its first secretary.