Congo. The peace process, which stalled towards the end
of 2001, gained momentum and after negotiations in Sun City
in South Africa, the government and the Ugandan-backed rebel
movement MLC (the Congolese Liberation Movement) wrote in
April under a power-sharing agreement. According to the
agreement, MLC leader Jean-Pierre Bemba would become prime
minister in a transitional government.
Countryaah website, the Rwandan-backed rebel movement RCD (Assembly for a
Democratic Congo) rejected the deal and was supported in its
criticism by opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi. RCD
declined the offer to take the post of President of
Parliament. However, no transitional government ever
appeared. The continued negotiations on the details of the
settlement took hold and in September Bemba said the
agreement had failed.
Meanwhile, negotiations continued to wind down the
international involvement in K. In July, the government made
peace with Rwanda, which sent more than 20,000 soldiers to
K. to harm Rwandan militia. K. promised to disarm the
militia and send them home with the help of the UN. In
September, a peace agreement was signed with Uganda.
During the autumn, a rapid foreign retreat took place and
at the end of October it was announced that all government
troops from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zimbabwe and Angola had
left K. An exception was made for a thousand Ugandan
soldiers who were left in the northeastern K. at the UN's
request. to avoid a dangerous power vacuum. After the
Rwandan retreat, fighting in the Kivu region erupted between
rebel factions and the so-called Mai-Mai militia.
Peace talks resumed in the autumn in South Africa and led
in mid-December to an agreement on a provisional unity
government. President Joseph Kabila remains in office for at
least two years, and in turn receives four vice presidents
representing the government, the political opposition and
the two rebel movements. These four groupings plus "civil
society" as well as Mai-Mai and two outbreak groups from the
RCD are also represented in the government and the
provisional parliament. General elections shall be held
within a maximum of three years after the transitional
government has taken office. Despite the peace agreement,
fighting in the northeast continued between minor rebel
The successful peace work led to K. again receiving
financial support. The EU has allocated € 120 million after
a ten-year stoppage of aid. The International Monetary Fund
(IMF) granted a $ 750 million loan to fight poverty and
promote economic growth, while the World Bank lent $ 410
million. The IMF also considered future depreciation of
parts of K's foreign debt of $ 13 billion.
In July 2012, ICC sentenced Thomas Lubanga Dyilo to 14
years in prison. In March, he had been found guilty of war
crimes and of recruiting children under 15 to his military.
He was president of the Union of Congolese Patriots and head
of its armed branch FPLC. That same year, the ICC issued
arrest warrants on several Congolese war commanders.
During the period November 2013 - February 2014, the
police in Kinshasa conducted Operation Likofi, which was to
fight the gang crime in the capital. When the operation was
over after 3 months, 51 young men and boys were killed.
In March 2014, ICC Germain Katanga pleaded guilty to war
crimes and crimes against humanity for the attacks on
civilians in Bogoro, Ituri in February 2003. He was
sentenced to 12 years in prison. Katanga was a former leader
of the FPRI rebel movement. He decided not to appeal the
verdict and apologized to the victims. In June, the court
announced that it was working on 18 charges of war crimes
against Bosco Ntaganda, a former Congolese officer and
leader of a number of armed groups in the Congo supported by
Rwanda since the late 1990s. The crimes were committed in
northeastern Congo in 2002-03. Ntaganda had surrendered to
the US Embassy in Rwanda in March 2013 and had been
transferred into the ICC's custody.
Despite the UN's MONUSCO strengthening presence in
eastern Congo, the region remains one of the most dangerous
in the world. Up to 400,000 women and girls are subjected to
rape by government forces and rebel groups every year;
children under 15 are recruited by the rebel groups as
soldiers; hundreds of thousands remain internally displaced.
With the violent conflicts as a basis, the other human
rights have tight conditions, and the impunity for crimes
and offenses is pervasive, with the ICC's lawsuits against
captured militia leaders being the exception.
In January 2015, demonstrations led by students from the
University of Kinshasa broke out. The background was the
publication of a new law that would allow President Kabila
to remain in office until a census was conducted in the
country. Otherwise, presidential elections were scheduled
for implementation in 2016. After 2 days of clashes between
police and protesters, at least 42 were killed. Despite the
demonstrations, the parliament passed the law a week later,
but without the addition that Kabila could be sitting in the