Kenya. In an effort to improve Kenya's spotty reputation,
President Daniel arap Moi hired British consultants to
counter corruption. Two special courts for corruption cases
were set up.
However, the critics held Moi himself responsible for the
corruption that caused the lender to turn Kenya's back. Before
the coming general elections, the opposition gathered, whose
fragmentation was the main reason for the president being
able to remain. Five parties and two interest groups joined
forces in Kenya's National Alliance Party (NAK).
Countryaah website, the National Development Party (NDP), which entered into
a coalition with ruling Kenya's African National Union
(KANU) in 2001, dissolved in March and was fully
incorporated into KANU. NDP leader Raila Odinga, formerly
one of Moi's foremost critics, became secretary general of
KANU. Odinga had set his sights on the presidential post and
reacted strongly when Moi said he wanted to succeed Uhuru
Kenyatta, 42-year-old son of Kenya's first president Jomo
Kenyatta. Moi, who belongs to an ethnic minority group, was
adopted with the help of Kenyatta to attract the majority of
the people of Kikuyu to vote for continued KANU rule.
Two ministers who opposed Kenyatta were dismissed. Vice
President George Saitoti was also dismissed when he
announced his intention to challenge Kenyatta. However, when
Kenyatta was named KANU's presidential candidate, a large
number of senior members with Odinga left the party and
joined NAK, which was now transformed into the National
Rainbow Coalition (NARC).
Former Vice President Mwai Kibaki was nominated as NARC
presidential candidate, who in the end-December election
defeated Uhuru Kenyatta by about 63% of the vote against 31.
Even in the parliamentary elections, NARC gained a clear
majority. As a result, 39 years of KANU rule was broken.
In an attack on a hotel outside Mombasa in November, nine
Kenyans, three newly arrived Israeli tourists and probably
three suicide bombers were killed. A few minutes after the
attack on the hotel, the returning Israeli aircraft was
close to being hit by two robots fired from the ground. The
terror network al-Qaeda claimed to have been behind the
attacks. The concrete suspicions were directed at Somali
KANU convened the Party Council to discuss the
implementation of democratic reforms which include: should
allow more parties to operate at national level. Pressure
groups such as the Forum for Restoration of Democracy (FORD)
led by Oginga Odinga and the Moral Alliance for Peace (MAP)
were immediately transformed into actual parties. But to
keep the situation "under control", the government continued
to arrest members of the opposition. In early 92, lawyer
James Orengo and environmentalist Wangari Maathai were
arrested on allegations of "spreading malicious rumors"
implicating President Moi in a plan to interrupt the
democratization process that had been initiated in 91.
In February 92, the Democratic Party (DP) was formed. A
new opposition party that advocated the development of a
multi-party democratic system. Until then, the government
had refused to determine the exact time for holding
elections. At the same time, women's groups demanded greater
participation in political life as women made up 53% of the
electorate and 80% of the labor force in agriculture - the
country's most important occupation.
The same month, FORD conducted a demonstration in Nairobi
with the participation of over 100,000 people. The
requirements included setting the suppression and press
censorship as well as drawing up a precise timetable for the
election. The demonstration was the first legal
demonstration against the government during the country's 22
years of independence.
In January, several ministers resigned to form new
political parties. In March, the government campaigned
against a general strike planned by wives of political
prisoners. The government banned political meetings and
censored the press, but the general strike nonetheless
forced President Moi into retreat. In January 93, Moi began
his fourth term after defeating the opposition in the
December 92 elections. Despite the 7 opposition parties
getting over 60% of the vote, they got only 88 seats in
In February, the government published a plan for
privatization and liberalization of foreign trade, but the
IMF criticized it for being inadequate. As a result,
negotiations with the FX were suspended. Arap Moi declined
to raise interest rates by 45% and reduce the number of
government employees from 270,000 to 45,000. Negotiations
later resumed, in April the currency was devalued by 23.47%
and the World Bank released a $ 350 million loan.
Liberalization continued in 94. Nairobi removed currency
controls with the aim of attracting private Kenyan and
foreign investment. That same year, a severe drought hit
several provinces in especially the eastern part of the
country and the Rift Valley. The government granted disaster
relief to the affected areas,