Lebanon. The EU and Lebanon agreed January 10 on an
association agreement. It took until June 17 before it was
signed when L. boycotted the ceremony in Spain in April
because of Israeli attacks on Palestinian territories.
Countryaah website, Lebanon hosted a summit in the framework of the Arab
League at the end of March. The meeting was dominated by
Saudi Arabia's Middle East peace plan, but Egypt's President
Hosni Mubarak, Jordan's King Abdullah and Palestinian leader
Yasir Arafat failed.
Firearms and artillery fire occurred between Israeli
forces and the Hizbullah guerrillas at the Israeli border.
Great excitement prevailed in April when Hizbullah fired the
disputed Shebaa area, which Israel conquered from Syria in
1967. Israeli airstrikes were also reported.
Lebanon's plans to divert water from the Wazzani River, which
accounts for a tenth of Israel's drinking water, triggered
another dispute. The United States intervened since Israel
was threatened with military violence in September if the
country's water supply was threatened.
On September 5, the TV station MTV was closed, citing its
"propaganda" in connection with a filling election in June.
The closure was seen as a way to silence critics of Syria's
strong influence in Lebanon. MTV's owner Gabriel Murr, who won the
election, belongs to these. Nearly 6,000 lawyers objected to
the closure through a one-day strike that crippled ongoing
Lebanon's President Emile Lahoud was visited in March by Syrian
President Bashar al-Asad for talks on finance, agriculture
and dust projects. In early April, Lebanon's army announced that
Syria's 20,000 soldiers would be moved closer to the Syrian
Parliament adopted a budget for February 2002. The
decision was preceded by a contentious decision to introduce
10% VAT. In late August, Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri
announced a 2003 budget marked by continued austerity.
Reconstruction costs after the 1975-90 civil war are a major
cause of the $ 29 billion foreign debt.
On November 24, France hosted a donor conference in which
Lebanon pledged $ 4 billion in credits to avert an acute economic
crisis. Saudi Arabia was the largest single donor with $ 700
million. The United States was among those who did not make
any contributions at all.
Several notable attacks occurred during the year. Jihad
Jibril, son of Ahmad Jibril, leader of the militant movement
People's Front of Palestine Liberation-General Command (PFLP-GC),
was killed by a car bomb May 20 in Beirut. Another car bomb
killed in January Elie Hubauyka, leader of the banned
Christian militia group of Lebanese forces (Forces
Libanaises), allied with Israel in the Lebanon 1982 invasion.
Israel's war on Lebanon was first and foremost a war on
the civilian population and thus a violation of the 4th
Geneva Convention, which deals with the protection of the
civilian population under warlike conditions. Israel thus
blamed war crimes that did not differ from Hezbollah's
attacks on civilians in Israel - apart from the extent.
Israel killed 40-50 times more civilians, and the systematic
destruction of Lebanon's infrastructure at the same time
made Israel guilty of state terrorism.
Already on July 20, UN Human Rights Commissioner Louise
Arbor criticized the war and talked about possible war
crimes in Lebanon, Israel and Gaza. She further stated:
Indiscriminate shelling of cities constitutes a
foreseeable and unacceptable targeting of civilians...
Similarly, the bombardment of sites with alleged military
significance, but resulting invariably in the killing of
innocent civilians, is unjustifiable
The Human Rights Council adopted an opinion on August 11
that sharply criticized Israel for its war crimes in
Lebanon. Israel was notorious for facing all kinds of
international criticism whether it came from the
International Court of Justice in The Hague, the UN or human
The United Nations and the International Red Cross were
already rapidly developing the situation in southern Lebanon
after a week of war, on a large-scale humanitarian disaster,
when Israel bombed the infrastructure and damaged all its
vehicles. This included refugees, emergency convoys and
ambulances. International Red Cross reported such Israeli
attacks on ambulances, one of which was hit by an Israeli
precision missile in the middle of the cross. A practice
Israel had already used for several years in Gaza and the
In desperation that its land offensive in the south had
stalled due to fierce Lebanese resistance and continued
massive Lebanese rocket attacks on Israel, Israeli fighter
planes attacked the Christian Quarter of Beirut on August 4,
destroying the last 5 bridges of Beirut, bringing relief
efforts for stopping. At the same time, the last bridges
over the Litani River were bombed so that relief
organizations could no longer transport emergency aid into
southern Lebanon. In protest, relief organizations began to
transport the relief aid across the Litani River by hand. In
the Bekaa Valley, Israeli bombers killed 23 country workers
and from southern Lebanon there were reports of 53 killed
civilians in two houses bombed by Israel. In revenge for
Israeli terror, Hezbollah sent over 200 rockets into
northern and central Israel, 2 of which reached as far south
as Hadera, only 40 km from Tel Aviv. 3 civilians were killed
as a result of Hezbollah's terror.
Britain's President of the Lower House and former Foreign
Minister Jack Straw declared July 26: Israel's military
actions "may further destabilize the already fragile
Lebanese nation". And further: “I mourn the many innocent
Israelis who were killed during the conflict. And I mourn
the 10 times more Lebanese, men, women and children who have
been killed by the Israeli military. " He also endorsed the
British Foreign Minister's criticism of Israel for its
fierce war against the Lebanese civilian population.
The International Red Cross criticized after the
ceasefire on August 14 that the parties had failed to comply
with the Geneva Conventions and had sufficient regard for
the civilian population. At the same time, Israel's attack
on the Lebanese Red Cross in particular was condemned.
(ICRC: Lebanon/Israel: civilians pay the price of
conflict, Geneva August 14).
Human Rights Watch closely followed the war, criticizing
both parties' war crimes. On August 3, the human rights
organization published the report Fatal Strikes. Israel's
Indiscriminate Attacks Against Civilians in Lebanon. On
August 8, it called on the UN to launch an investigation
into the killing of civilians in Lebanon and northern Israel
UN: Open Independent Inquiry into Civilian Deaths.
At its extraordinary session on August 11, the United
Nations Human Rights Council condemned Israel's war crimes
in Lebanon. (Council Strongly Condemns Grave Israeli
Violations of Human Rights in Lebanon).