Mongolia. According to Countryaah website, national day of Mongolia is every December 29. The Socialist government received harsh criticism for suspected corruption. Thousands of protesters demanded in April that responsible ministers be dismissed. Among the criticisms were also concerns that the government should negotiate control of the mining company Erdenet to Russia to reduce Mongolia’s debt from the Soviet era of over SEK 90 billion. Concern was sparked by the darkening of the negotiations.
Foreign aid donors also showed irritation over corruption and slow pace of economic reform. The US and the International Monetary Fund made less contributions as a dissatisfaction mark.
In January 1992, Parliament passed a constitutional reform presented by the government. The reform removed the People from the name of the Republic, so the country was now officially called the Republic of Mongolia. At the same time, a democratic multi-party system was introduced to replace the socialist system that had existed until then.
In the June 1992 parliamentary elections, the incumbent government won 70 out of the 76 seats of the parliament. The Democratic Coalition of the opposition only got 3-4 seats – according to. figures from the Supreme Election Commission that monitored the count. Over 90% of the population took part in the elections.
Following the defeat in June, in October 1992, the opposition transformed into the Democratic National Party of Mongolia (MDN). The Social Democrats preferred to remain independent.
Up to the privatization of 80% of state enterprises in November 1992, each resident was allocated vouchers for the purchase of shares, but the predominantly nomadic population did not understand the system and preferred to sell the vouchers on the black market.
The withdrawal of the Russian troops that began in 1987 was completed in 1992. At the same time, the incumbent President Otchirbat approached the MDN and the Social Democracy. That enabled the president in June 1993 to regain his post by 58% of the vote, and he subsequently declared that the economy would be turned in a more “western” direction.
During 1994, the conflicts between Otchirbat and the ex-communist majority in parliament worsened. Poverty and unemployment continued to rise, and according to. official estimates had 26.5% of the population not enough to survive.
In 1994, for the first time since the collapse of communism, the country experienced economic growth of 2½%. In Parliament, the disagreements between the MDN and the Social Democrats, on the one hand, and the ex-Communist majority, on the other, intensified, which in 1995 led to an agreement on changes in the electoral system. It was decided that 24 of the 76 parliamentarians should be elected by a proportional system, while the remaining 52 seats would be filled from the single-circle system.
In the economic sphere, a number of international organizations criticized the apparent slowness with which Mongolia liberalized its economy and encouraged the development of the private sector.
In the June 1996 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won a majority. The DA was an alliance between the Social Democracy and the MDN. The communist monopoly of power was thus broken. AD got 50 of the parliament’s 76 seats, while the ex-communists had to be reduced from 70 to 25 seats. In July, Parliament appointed Mendsayhany Enkhsaikhan as Prime Minister.
After the election, the government devised a reform plan for rapid transition to market economy. This process had high social costs as it increased unemployment and poverty. However, this situation was also largely due to the consequences it had had when technical and financial assistance ceased with the collapse of the Soviet Union. About 19.6% of the population now lived below the poverty line.