|North America belongs to the American continent, which
is also formed by Central America and South America.
America has its limits to the east with the Atlantic Ocean,
to the west with the Pacific Ocean, and to the north with
the Arctic Ocean and to the south with Central America and
The North American relief features two mountain ranges
arranged almost parallel: the Western mountain ranges and
the Appalachian or Allegany mountains, which include: the
Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Mountains, the Rocky Mountains,
and the Costa chain. Between them there are three lower
areas: the Canadian shield, to the north; the central plain;
and the plain of the Atlantic coast.
In Mexico, the western mountain ranges are divided, in
the Madre Occidental and Eastern mountains, with volcanoes
such as Popocatepetl (5,451m) and Orizaba (5,699m), which
close the Mexican plateau.
The main landforms are the Florida and Yucatan
peninsulas, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the California
peninsula and Gulf. The peak is Mount McKinley (6,194m) in
The largest islands are Greenland, Banks, Victoria,
Ellesmere, Devon and Baffinland and are located to the
North America has the Great Lakes as its main feature in
its hydrography, located on the border of the United States
with Canada. They have a total area of 250,000 km², it is
in this region that are the famous Niagara falls.
Among the most prominent rivers is the Mississippi,
presenting a basin of 4,600,000 km², this river runs through
the United States from north to south, its main tributaries
are Missouri, Arkansas and Ohio. It is on the slopes of the
Appalachian Mountains that the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna
and Potomac rivers are born, which pour their waters into
the Atlantic. In western North America the most important
rivers are Columbia and Colorado.
In the region of Canada it presents several glacial
lakes, among them the Winnipeg, the Great Lake of the Bear,
the Atabasca, the Manitoba and the Great Lake of the Slave.
Other important rivers also stand out, such as São Lourenço,
Frazer, Mackenzie and Nelson, in Canada, and the Yukon, in
Alaska. In Mexico, the Rio Grande stands out as the largest.
North America's climate has five main climatic regions.
The northern two-thirds of Canada and Alaska, as well as
Greenland, are characterized by arctic climates, where the
rigor of long winters is alternated with the mildness of
short summers. In these regions, rainfall is rare. Snow and
ice are common for much of the year.
The second climatic region is located in two thirds of
North America, a region that comprises the United States and
southern Canada. In this region changes in time are
frequent, as the southern part presents warmer average
A third region comprises the western interior of the
United States and a large part of northern Mexico. Mainly
mountainous and desert area, rainfall is rare and
temperature variations are local depending on the altitude.
The fourth climatic region narrowly dominates an area
that borders the Pacific Ocean from southern Alaska to
southern California. This region has a temperate climate
with rare rains in the summer.
Finally, the southern part of Mexico provides a tropical
and warm climate throughout the year, with heavy rainfall,
especially in the summer. In this region it is common to
experience sudden changes in temperature during the same
season, with the consequent formation of hurricanes in the
Gulf of Mexico.
Fauna and Flora
AbbreviationFinder.org, North America's natural vegetation varies by region and
is characterized by the taiga, or boreal forest, a vast
wooded expanse mainly made up of conifers that covers most
of southern and central Canada and even extends to Alaska.
To the north the soil is surrounded by the tundra.
In the eastern United States, mixed forests are made up
of different pine species. In the western part, forests are
located in mountain ranges and conifers are predominant.
Mexico is home to a tropical forest, particularly rich in
species. The driest regions of North America are made up of
herbs and shrubs.
The dry regions of the western United States and northern
Mexico have some rare varieties of shrubs and numerous
cactus species, vegetation that is characteristic of the
The fauna in North America is quite rich and is home to
countless species such as reindeer, moose, polar bears,
seals and foxes, animals that inhabit the southern regions.
In other regions, such as the central American prairie,
deer, puma and bison are found. In the deserts you can find
rodents, reptiles and coyotes and in the forests you can
find a wide variety of birds, squirrels and snakes.
North America has a wide variety of racial and ethnic
types, due to the miscegenation of the indigenous peoples
who lived on the continent with Europeans and black
Africans. As of the 20th century, the immigration of Asians
In the United States and Canada, the predominance of the
population is of European origin. A large part of the
Mexican population comes from the mixture of indigenous and
Europeans and the people that inhabit Greenland are the
result of the mixture of Eskimos with the early Danish
North America has a linguistic variation. There is
English, spoken in the United States and Canada; French, in
Canada; and Spanish, in Mexico and the United States, are
the main languages.
Among the languages of native and indigenous origin,
the highlights are Nahuatl and Mayan in Mexico; the sioux,
in the United States; atapasco, in Canada; and the Eskimo,
in Canada and Greenland.