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Oceania

Oceania (Prehistory & History - Colonial Time)

Oceania's position in relation to the world's economic and political centers was a major reason why direct colonization took place relatively late. In New Zealand, colonial rule was officially established in 1840, but in New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) only in 1906. Spain, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, USA, Chile, New Zealand and Australia have all had colonial control over areas of the region, the last two as deputies or replacements for British colonial power. In most places the colonial period was characterized by control and governance and involved only minimal economic development or education of the local population. In some places, such as Fiji, New Caledonia, Nauru and Ocean Island, where the colonial power could exploit special resources in mining or plantation operations.

Oceania Vegetation

Vegetation has as its main formation factor the climate. The Oceania has territories located in the southern hemisphere between the equator and the Antarctic Polar Circle, and has a subtropical high pressure cell over Australian territory, forming a desert within that country. We can see that Oceania has different types of climate, which makes this continent present different types of plant formations. Oceania can be divided into two parts: continental, with Australia being the only country; and island with some large islands, such as Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, and numerous small islands.

Vegetations of tropical climates dominate the islands, except New Zealand, as well as much of the Australian territory, according to Countryaah.com. The rainforest vegetation occupies the island portion of the continent and a small strip of the northeastern coast of Australia. The hot and humid climate of these forests favors the appearance of great biodiversity, and a dense vegetation cover. The canopy in the rainforestit is continuous and divided into three levels: upper, between 50 and 60 meters, medium (the densest), between 20 and 40 meters, and the lower, between five and 15 meters. Northern Australia is dominated by the seasonal tropical forest and the shrub complex with small and medium-sized trees, no more than 15 meters long, with upside-down umbrella-shaped branches and adapted xerophytic shrubs dry climate. The tropical savannah occupies the peripheral part of the Australian desert, which is in the center of the country, and makes the transition between the desert and more humid climates. It has large fields of grass, with sparse trees and flattened crowns. In the drier areas, grasses grow in thickets, leaving the rest of the soil bare.

Vegetation has as its main formation factor the climate. The Oceania has territories located in the southern hemisphere between the equator and the Antarctic Polar Circle, and has a subtropical high pressure cell over Australian territory, forming a desert within that country. We can see that Oceania has different types of climate, which makes this continent present different types of plant formations. Oceania can be divided into two parts: continental, with Australia being the only country; and island with some large islands, such as Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, and numerous small islands.

Vegetations of tropical climates dominate the islands, except New Zealand, as well as much of the Australian territory. The rainforest vegetation occupies the island portion of the continent and a small strip of the northeastern coast of Australia. The hot and humid climate of these forests favors the appearance of great biodiversity, and a dense vegetation cover. The canopy in the rainforestit is continuous and divided into three levels: upper, between 50 and 60 meters, medium (the densest), between 20 and 40 meters, and the lower, between five and 15 meters. Northern Australia is dominated by the seasonal tropical forest and the shrub complex with small and medium-sized trees, no more than 15 meters long, with upside-down umbrella-shaped branches and adapted xerophytic shrubs dry climate. The tropical savannah occupies the peripheral part of the Australian desert, which is in the center of the country, and makes the transition between the desert and more humid climates. It has large fields of grass, with sparse trees and flattened crowns. In the drier areas, grasses grow in thickets, leaving the rest of the soil bare.

The alpine tundra is found at the top of the mountains in New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. It is characterized by being a low vegetation of herbaceous, mosses, lichens and small woody shrubs. Snow, cold and constant wind prevent the appearance of more developed plant species.

Papua New Guinea History

The first archaeological traces of human activity are 50-60,000 years old. The Austronesian migration to the area began about 3500 years ago. Until New Guinea was colonized, there was no centralized state in the area. The population has traditionally been organized into more or less egalitarian groups with leaders who themselves mobilized support and linked alliances to hierarchical systems with inherited leadership positions. The various groups have been linked by extensive trade networks, both along the coast and inland.

The first Europeans came to the area in the 16th century, and New Guinea was drawn on a world map for the first time in 1569. Several European seafarers found their way to the coast of New Guinea and the islands around it, but no one was made major expeditions inland on the island until the end of the 19th century. In 1606 Luis Vaez de Torres sailed through the strait given his name, proving that New Guinea was not related to Australia.

In 1884, the southeastern New Guinea became the protectorate of the United Kingdom and called British New Guinea. The same year, Germany annexed the northeast and called it Deutsch-New Guinea. Control of the colony was left to Deutsche Neuguinea-Kompagnie, which traded with Copra until the German Empire took direct control in 1899. In 1902, the British New Guinea colony was transferred to Commonwealth Australia and the name changed to Territory of Papua.

During World War I, Australian forces overpowered the Germans of New Britain and German New Guinea was controlled by Australia for the next few years. In 1920, Australia was formally mandated to govern German New Guinea by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles. During World War II, parts of New Guinea were invaded by Japanese forces, but these were fought back and held positions only on smaller islands around mainland New Guinea until the war ended. In 1946, the United Nations gave both the northeastern and southeastern parts of New Guinea to Australia as a protectorate under the name The Territory of Papua and New Guinea. In 1973 the name was changed to Papua New Guinea, and on September 16, 1975, the country became an independent state with Michael Thomas Somare as prime minister.

Countries in Oceania
  1. Australia
  2. Fiji
  3. Kiribati
  4. Marshall Islands
  5. Micronesia
  6. Nauru
  7. New Zealand
  8. Palau
  9. Papua New Guinea
  10. Samoa
  11. Solomon Islands
  12. Tonga
  13. Tuvalu
  14. Vanuatu

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