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Panama

Yearbook 2002

Panama. During the year, an agreement was reached with the United States on increased cooperation in the fight against drug smuggling and terrorism. According to Countryaah website, the US government has expressed fears that any of the 6,500 panama-registered cargo vessels will be used by international terrorists as a "floating bomb" against US targets. Concerns were also expressed by the opinion in Panama that the agreement opens the way for a return of US troops, which was dismissed by the Foreign Ministry.

In January, protest marches were organized demanding the investigation and punishment of several members of Congress accused of corruption. Three members of the opposition party Partido Revolucionario Democratica (PRD) are accused of having been bribed for the government's candidates to the Supreme Court through bribery.

2002 Panama

US intervention

The first reference to the United States having the right to intervene militarily in Panama appears in the Mallarino-Bidlak Treaty, signed between Washington and Bogotá in 1846. The document entitles the United States to build a railroad over the Atlantic whose terminal on the Atlantic coast is the island Manzanillo in the Gulf of Limón. The purpose of the railways was partly to create a faster coast-to-coast connection and partly to curb Britain's influence in the region - especially in Nicaragua.

On January 1, 1880, construction of the Panama Canal begins. It is implemented by the French Universal Society of Panama Canal, led by the Frenchman Lesseps. In 1891, a scandal broke out revealing the company's fraud cases, and the company went bankrupt after completing 33 miles of the canal. Three years later, the New Panama Canal Company is set up to complete the project.

In mid-1902, the United States purchased the canal rights from the French company and in January 1903 they signed with a Colombian representative Hay-Herrán the agreement on the building and administration of the canal. The agreement also gives the superpower a 9.5 km wide belt across the perch as a lease for ever. From that point on, construction work continues.

But the Colombian Senate unanimously rejects the agreement, which it considers a violation of the country's sovereignty. A revolution "now solves the problem" for the United States. In November 1903, the "revolutionaries" declared Panama independent. The United States, with its " Marines ", is preventing Colombia from intervening, recognizing the new state after 3 days. In the United States, President Theodore Roosevelt sat in the presidential post, bringing his big stance to life for the outside world.

A new Hay-Buneau Varilla treaty is signed between the United States and Panama. It gives the superpower control over a 16 km wide belt forever and to the lakes and rivers at the ends of the canal. The former shareholder of the French canal company - Frenchman Philippe Buneau Varilla - signs as official representative of Panama. He gets paid his reward in Washington and never returns to Panama later. The 82 km long canal is officially inaugurated on August 15, 1914 and administered and led by the United States.

The channel zone provides incredible revenue for the United States. Not only in the form of the charge for using the channel, but first and foremost in terms of the time and distance saved for sea transport between the east and west coasts of the United States. The superpower's military bases in Panama became a strategic tool to maintain control of Latin America during the Cold War. At the same time, they became centers of education and indoctrination in the "national security doctrine" - a political-military doctrine intended to guarantee dictators' loyalty to the United States, overthrowing legal governments and imposing military dictatorships. The financial center created in Panama at the same time served as a platform for the expansion of multinational corporations and the laundering of drug dollars.

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