Countryaah website, Sudan was put under strong foreign pressure to end almost
two decades of civil war. The government and the SPLM
guerrilla agreed in January on a ceasefire in the Nuba
Mountains in central Sudan. An international monitoring
group was sent to the area.
In June, peace negotiations began in Kenya, which after
five weeks culminated in an agreement in principle on two of
the central issues of the conflict. The government agreed
that Islamic law should apply only in the north and that the
residents of the south should be given a referendum on
possible independence after six years of peace.
A new round of negotiations began in August, but both
sides maintained a high level of preparedness for war. After
a few weeks the conversations became stranded since the
guerrilla had taken a strategically important place. For a
time, fierce fighting was fought until the parties agreed on
a ceasefire on October 16, the first of the entire conflict.
Despite some screen savers, peace talks continued and the
ceasefire was extended to March 31, 2003.
In June 1989, General Bashir overthrew the president and
made the government responsible for the country's
political-economic crisis. Bashir disbanded the political
parties, formed a 15-member military junta and promised to
end the war.
Ten months after the coup, other officers conducted a
coup attempt. At the same time, attempts by Ethiopia, Kenya,
Uganda, Zaires and the United States failed to mediate in
the country's protracted internal conflict. The various
peace initiatives failed, while government troops and
paramilitary Arab groups funded by Bashir hit the people of
the south. The African people in the South were frequently
forced to leave their lands due to attacks by these military
On February 4, 1991, the government introduced a
federative structure in the country. Sudan was divided into
9 states, each administered by a governor and a ministerial
council. Already on January 31, General Omar Bashir's
government had signed a new criminal law based on Islamic
Sharia - though only in the northern part of the
country where Islam is the dominant religion.
In the first months of 1992, the United States Office for
Disaster Support condemned the systematic extermination of
Nubian descent as well as the displacement of people against
desert areas. These later searched for Khartoum, where they
were collected in camps without drinking water or latrines.
In March, with the support of Ethiopia, Iran and Libya,
the government began a military offensive against the
People's Liberation Army (FB), taking on the city of Bhor in
the south, which was a symbol of the uprising.
Despite its military offensive, the government lost ever
more control over the interior of the country. In the south
operated the People's Liberation Army, led by John Garang,
and in the north the Nasir rebel group led by Riek Mashar,
who had broken out of the People's Liberation Army. The
unstable situation led the government to strike hard against
the opposition and in the countryside against the villages
that supported the guerrillas.
In May 1992, with the support of the Nigerian President,
negotiations began in Abuja, Nigeria. They culminated in
June with a general and ambiguous communication.
In January 1993, disagreements at the head of the
government led to a government transformation aimed at
adapting its policy to the objectives set by the IMF and the
World Bank. Nevertheless, both financial institutions
considered the steps insufficient, and interest on the
country's foreign debt remained unpaid. As a consequence, in
April abroad the funding for a number of infrastructure
projects ceased. Daily military spending ran up to $ 2
million during this period.