Uzbekistan. According to Countryaah website, national day of Uzbekistan is every September 1. Uzbekistan continued its cooperation with the United States in the fight against terrorism, which began after September 11 the year before. About 1,500 US soldiers were stationed at Khanabad military base in southern Uzbekistan. At the beginning of the year, the head of US military operations in Afghanistan visited Uzbekistan for talks with President Islam Karimov. It was decided to have regular US-Uzbek security consultations on a joint commission with military experts.
In March, the government recognized for the first time an independent Uzbek human rights organization, the Independent Human Rights Society, which had applied for registration since 1997. According to the company’s leadership, international pressure contributed to the recognition. One event that looked like a backdrop was that President Karimov visited the United States that month, including the US. with the intention of expanding US aid. Karimov promised to fulfill the American conditions for further democratic and economic reform.
However, Uzbekistan opposition politicians expressed doubts about Karimov’s willingness to live up to his promises. Human Rights Watch accused the regime of abusive zeal to strike down the forbidden Islamic movement Hezb ut-Tahrir. In May, while the regime abolished the press censorship, it retained the possibility of withdrawing magazines’ publishing permits.
In August, a street protest was allowed which lasted one day, but a week later the authorities turned to another demonstration. Members of the Russian minority, who tried to protest against ethnic discrimination, stated that they had been forced into treatment at a psychiatric clinic. At the end of the year, a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses was sentenced to three years of conditional imprisonment accused of denouncing “religious hatred.” The alleged crime consisted in distribution of printed matter. Uzbekistan is Muslim dominated.
Uzbekistan is in the temperate climatic zone. Depending on the region, there is a humid continental climate, a temperate steppe climate or a temperate desert climate. The summers are usually hot and cloudless, the winters changeable and cold.
The annual precipitation is – depending on the region – only 50-400 mm, but increases in the mountains to over 1000 mm annually. The temperatures fluctuate strongly both year and time of day.
UZBEKISTAN – COUNTRY OF BLUE DOLLS ON THE SILK ROAD
Merchants and soldiers in the steppes of Eurasia
The grasslands, hot deserts, and icy mountain slopes of Central Asia have been an open home for nomads for millennia. The nomadic way of life has made it possible to move and transport herds of animals to where water and pastures have been found at any given time. The nomadic groups were loose alliances that rarely formed true long-lived kingdoms. It is hard to believe that one of the most successful trade routes in the world, the fabulous Silk Road, was born and flourished for hundreds of years under these harsh conditions. Already in the early years of our era, Chinese Han emperors traded in “flying horses” in the Fergana Valley in what is now Uzbekistan in exchange for the silk they sold to Rome. The second heyday of Silk Road began in the 6th century during the reign of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. For the peoples of Central Asia, the trade route meant lucrative brokerage and transportation, and thus increasing prosperity. The success of the Silk Road ended with the growth of maritime trade and the relocation of trade to the south, to Guangzhou.
Not only the merchants, but also one army after another crossed the plain connecting Europe and Asia and the difficult mountain ranges. The Persians and Alexander the Great came from the west, the Huns and the Genghis Khan with their Mongol armies from the east. The territory of present-day Uzbekistan first belonged to the Persian Empire of Sogdiana and later as a legacy of Alexander the Great to Greek-born Seleucids. Islam was planted in the area by Turkish conquerors as an oasis from an oasis by the mid-7th century. The avalanche of Mongols across a vast continent in the 13th century left behind destroyed cities, such as Samarkand and Bukhara, and millions of dead people. Venetian merchant Marco Polo stayed in the rabbit court for 17 years. From his memoirs we are given a vivid picture of the creators of the greatest empire in the world,
Genghis Khan divided the giant kingdom among his four sons. The territory of Uzbekistan was given to Chagatai. In the 14th century, his descendant Timur Lenk established a great power in the steppes of Central Asia, where the customs of the nomads merged with the Islamic traditions they had adopted from their defeated peoples. The kingdom of Timur Lenk (also: Tamerlane) extended to Baghdad, Damascus, India, and western Russia. From the capital, Samarkand, a “center of the world” and a “threshold of paradise” were built by inviting skilled artisans from all over Asia to erect Quranic schools (Madrasa) and mosques. Timur Lenk also attracted scholars, poets, and other artists to shelter the ruler’s wings. During the time of his descendants, the Timurids, the kingdom was again fragmented and had practically disappeared by the turn of the 16th century. One of the princes, Baburin, managed to escape to India, where he became the ancestor of mighty Mughals.