In 2002, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a small country located in the Balkans region of Europe. It had a population of around 4 million people and an economy that was largely dependent on agriculture, tourism, and foreign aid. Despite this, there were still economic challenges such as high levels of poverty, particularly among young people and those living in rural areas. According to computerannals, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a relatively stable democracy with strong government institutions which enabled it to address pressing issues such as crime and corruption. Furthermore, Bosnia and Herzegovina also enjoyed close diplomatic ties with other countries in the region which enabled it to remain an important player in international affairs. In terms of development, the government began to focus on improving infrastructure and providing basic services such as healthcare and education which provided a glimmer of hope for a better future for Bosnians. Additionally, efforts have been made by both local and international organizations to strengthen democratic institutions within the country in order to promote stability within Bosnia and Herzegovina. The government also adopted several economic reforms aimed at encouraging foreign investment and promoting sustainable economic growth.
Bosnia and Herzegovina. When Bosnia and Herzegovina, for the first time since the Civil War, went to the elections in October, it became a setback for international efforts to achieve reconciliation. According to Countryaah website, national day of Bosnia and Herzegovina is every March 1. The moderate forces that ruled for two years were left behind for nationalist parties that emerged in both legislative assemblies and in the three-part presidency. The mainly symbolic presidential posts went to Mirko Šarović, a member of the Serbian SDS (Srpska Democratic Stranka), Dragan Čović of Croatian HDZ (Hrvatska Democratic Zajednica), and the Muslim SDA (Stranka Democratic Akcije) Sulejman Tihic.
In April, the representative of the Western powers, Wolfgang Petritsch, passed constitutional amendments that gave all three peoples groups equal political rights throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. This meant that all political groups were guaranteed political representation and that the three languages were given equal status in both the Republic of Srpska and the Muslim-Croat Federation. The dominant nationalist parties in the three camps were critical, but could do nothing. Petritsch also stripped politicians at local level of influence over the judiciary as a final measure before being replaced in May as “High Representative” by British politician Paddy Ashdown.
In May, some small steps were also taken to unify the country, which has been divided in practice since the Dayton Agreement in 1995. The authorities decided to start issuing joint identity documents, valid in both sub-republics, and the military agreed to form a joint UN force for peacekeeping operations. elsewhere. In addition, football representatives agreed to start an all-Bosnian league.
The future of the SFOR peacekeeping force looked uncertain in July when the United States threatened to withdraw its troops if US soldiers were not guaranteed prosecution immunity in the newly established International Criminal Court in The Hague. A compromise was reached after a couple of weeks and SFOR was given an extended mandate. According to previous decisions, the strength would be greatly reduced during the year.
In July, the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Yugoslavia held a summit in Sarajevo, which resulted in a declaration, among other things. that borders should be respected, refugee return facilitated and regional cooperation strengthened.
The Bosnian government imposed a total ban on arms exports and arms imports. The decision was made following strong international pressure after it was revealed that a Bosnian company sold military material to Iraq, in violation of the UN arms embargo.
Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the Council of Europe during the year.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Overview
According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, BIH stands for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Finnish citizens do not need a visa when traveling to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the mountains, winters are cold and summers are cool and rainy. Elsewhere, winters are milder and summers hot and dry. The coast has a Mediterranean climate.
BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA. – Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, having as its capital Sarajevo (86,495 residents In 1941), bordering Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro and having an outlet on the Adriatic at the mouth of the Narenta. It was part of the kingdom of Croatia from 1941 to 1945. It includes territories that are different from a geographical point of view: to the west it extends over karst territories, in the center the Dinaric reliefs prevail, rounded conforming, often separated by rugged and wild valleys, while in N. (Sava valley) there are the best soils ( Posavina), which are already part of the Pannonian plain. It extends over 51,564 sq km. and counts (1931) 2,323,555 residents, with a density of 45.1 per sq. km, somewhat lower than the average of Yugoslavia. The residents preferably group in hamlets and villages, with poor relations between them. Bosnia-Herzegovina sends 25 deputies to the Council of Nationalities, elected by the individual federal republics (seeYugoslavia, in this App.).
The population is quite heterogeneous, being made up of Serbs, Croats and Muslims of Slavic origin.
In Bosnia the forest represents one of the greatest riches, while the driest areas are used by transhumant pastoralism. The most intensively cultivated area is represented by Posavina, where the land is suitable for cereals and fruit trees (especially plum trees). Bosnia is tributary of the Danube, while Herzegovina is tributary of the Adriatic. The latter corresponds to the Narenta and Trebišnjica basins. Its relief is very troubled and limestone rocks, beaten by the bora, mostly bare and covered by thin pastures, prevail, while in the sheltered parts Mediterranean plants grow. The main crops, harvested in the places where the red earth has gathered, are corn, tobacco, vines, fruit trees.