In 2002, Cambodia was a small Southeast Asian country with a population of around 11 million people. After decades of civil war and occupation, the country was slowly rebuilding under the leadership of Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People’s Party. The economy was primarily agrarian with subsistence farming being the main source of income for most families. In addition to agriculture, tourism had begun to take off in recent years as travelers discovered the country’s rich cultural heritage and stunning natural beauty. According to computerannals, education was highly valued in Cambodia and primary school enrollment had increased significantly since the end of the civil war in 1998. Healthcare services were provided by both public and private institutions, though access to healthcare remained limited due to lack of infrastructure and resources. Despite its progress since independence in 1953, poverty remained a major issue for many Cambodians with over half living below the poverty line.
Cambodia. Cambodia’s and the UN’s five-year attempt to jointly set up an international tribunal to bring Red Khmer leaders to justice for genocide and crimes against humanity under the control of guerrillas 1975-79 failed at the beginning of the year. According to Countryaah website, national day of Cambodia is every November 9. The UN withdrew from the cooperation because the organization felt that the court’s independence from the Cambodian government could not be guaranteed. The UN received some criticism for its actions, but K’s interest in investigating the Red Khmer leaders who were still alive was also questioned. Prime Minister Hun Sen announced that the government is now planning to conduct the trials itself, but a few months later he said it was prepared to compromise on the disputed Cambodian law that would underpin the tribunal. In December, the government announced that new negotiations with the UN on the tribunal would begin in January 2003.
In February, Ta Mok, the commander of the Red Khmer during the genocide, was indicted for crimes against humanity. He had previously been charged with genocide. A new indictment was necessary for the government to keep him in custody.
One of the most responsible for the 1970s genocide, the Red Khmer General Ke Pauk, died at the age of 72 at the beginning of the year. He should have been brought to trial in a war crimes tribunal.
On February 3, local elections were held where several parties could stand for candidates. The election was preceded by massive violence, mainly from the ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CCP). There were reports of electoral fraud and at least 20 opposition politicians were murdered. The result was that CCP won the majority in all but 23 of the 1,620 municipalities. The election received sharp criticism from the outside world for not having acted fairly.
During the summer, the Mekong River rose over its banks and floods forced about half a million people to leave their homes. Several people drowned and large areas of rice crops were destroyed. Warnings for food shortages were issued in the fall.
The country was criticized by the UN for its treatment of a group of Vietnamese refugees who have entered the country. The group belonged to a Christian minority in the mountain area between the two countries, and stated that the Vietnamese authorities seized their land and prevented them from practicing their religion. Cambodia threatened to arrest them if they did not return to Vietnam. The problem was solved in June when the refugees were granted asylum in the US.
In November 2003, Sean Sutton of the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) stated that 85% of Cambodians outside the major cities live on agriculture, and this large portion of the population is threatened by health due to the many landmines still remaining after 20 years of war. bothers agriculture. A study by MAG found that 40% of rural villages in Cambodia continue to be plagued by landmine problems. The country continues to have the highest level of amputations in the world.
In December, the government inaugurated a World Bank-funded soy mill in Phnom Penh. It employed predominantly unemployed women. For the past 9 years, Hagar has been active in development projects that combine combating unemployment and promoting economic growth. The factory produces 12,000 liters of soy milk a day, and the authorities expect it to help reduce unemployment while benefiting the local community. Hagar’s director, Pierre Tami, stated that the purpose of the factory was also to make soy a food that can help the poorest sectors of Cambodia in their nutrition.
In January 2004, Cambodian labor leader Chea Vichea was killed in Phnom Penh. Her supporters were convinced that the motive was political, since she had recently criticized the country’s government. The killing was just one of several professional leaders in previous months. Vichea was associated with Sam Rainsy’s opposition party, and this declared that she was a victim of the government’s persecution because of her fight against corruption and human rights violations.
In March, Pol Pot’s former prime minister, Khieu Samphan, published his commemorative book: “Cambodia’s Recent History and My Subsequent Position”. In this he denied having participated in the mass murders of the 70s. He portrayed himself as a person with no real power. Human rights activists pointed out that Samphan is seeking to defend himself. He is on trial, accused by the UN of being co-responsible for the deaths of over 1 million Cambodians during his tenure.
In July, the UNHCR found a group of 40 Vietnamese Montagnards living in the jungle of Cambodia. Human rights organizations confirmed that there are still a large number of Montagnards living hidden in Ratanakiri province in northeastern Cambodia. The government declared them illegal immigrants, and refused to grant them humanitarian aid. It was only after pressure from King Norodom Sihanouk, diplomats, humanitarian organizations and the UNHCR, that the UNHCR’s office in Ratanakiri’s main city, Banlung, succeeded in providing proper assistance to the refugees.
Cambodia Country Overview
Finnish citizen needs a visa to Cambodia. A Cambodian tourist visa is issued upon arrival and is valid for 30 days. Visa is payable locally, please reserve cash for USD 30. One passport photo must be included and the passport must have at least 1 blank page.
It is also possible to apply for an e-visa in advance at: https://www.evisa.gov.kh/ . An e-visa allows travel to the country when entering via Phnom Penh or Siem Reap International Airport or through the following border crossings: Thailand; Cham Yeam (Koh Kong), Aranyaprathet (Poipet), Vietnam; Moc Bai (Bavet).
The passport must be valid for at least 6 months upon arrival in the country. Visa policies and rates are subject to change without notice depending on local authorities.
- According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, KHM stands for Cambodia.
Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.
Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.
Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.
No compulsory vaccinations are required to enter the country when arriving from Finland. Please check the validity of vaccinations according to the national vaccination program as well as hepatitis vaccinations. Part of the country is at risk of malaria. Always check vaccination requirements at your health center or tourist clinic vaccination advice.
The currency of Cambodia is the Riel (KHR),
American dollars are generally used in Cambodia for payment, in exchange you may get back the reels. Euros are accepted at exchange offices and banks. In Cambodia, you can only withdraw money with Visa and Mastercard during bank opening hours. Paying with credit cards is also sometimes tricky, so book enough cash. You can check the daily exchange rates, eg www.forex.fi.
GMT +7, difference between Finnish time in winter +5 hours and in summer +4.
The electric current is 220 V, but 110 V electric current may also occur. In all four countries, power outages are relatively common.
Check coverage with your operator. The country code is +855.
The area has a subtropical climate with hot and dry seasons (March-May), rainy season (June-October) and cool season (November-February). In the southern parts the temperature stays between 25-35 degrees all year round, in the northern mountains it is again much cooler, the average temperature is between 20-30 degrees during the day and between 10-20 degrees at night.
seasons in Cambodia are hot and humid most of the time. The most popular travel time is during the winter season from October to February. Then the heat is eased and the amount of rain is low. In April-May, the temperature can rise up to 40 degrees.
Religion: Buddhism is the religion of the majority population, but there are also Taoism, Confucianism, Muslims, and Christian minorities.
Exit fees and airport taxes There is no exit fee. Regulatory fees are subject to change without notice.
We stay on guided tours in safe areas, but pickpocketing is possible and moving around at night in certain areas may be unsafe. General caution within common sense is desirable throughout the journey.