Chile 2002

In 2002, Chile was a South American country located along the western coast of the continent with a population of around 15 million people. According to computerannals, it was led by President Ricardo Lagos and the ruling Concertacion alliance. The economy was largely based on services, with tourism and financial services being the main sources of income for many families. In addition to services, Chile had begun to diversify its economy in recent years and had experienced some growth in the manufacturing and mining sectors. Education was highly valued in Chile and primary school enrollment had increased significantly since democracy was restored in 1990. Healthcare services were provided by both public and private institutions, though access to healthcare remained limited due to lack of infrastructure and resources. Despite its progress since 1990, poverty remained a major issue for many Chileans with over 25 percent living below the poverty line. Corruption and mismanagement were also an issue as the government struggled to combat these issues with limited resources. Additionally, Chile faced security threats from neighboring countries such as Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina.

Yearbook 2002

Chile. In April, the government presented a proposal to change the constitution to remove the articles introduced by former dictator Augusto Pinochet shortly before his departure in 1990 to strengthen the military’s role in Chile’s politics. Among other things, the government wants to abolish the non-elected lifetime senators and the ban on the president to dismiss military commanders.

Despite these restrictions, President Ricardo Lagos succeeded in persuading Air Force Commander Patrício Ríos in October after revealing that he had withheld information from a human rights commission investigating human rights violations during Pinochet’s time in power.

According to Countryaah website, national day of Chile is every September 18. Pinochet himself resigned as senator July 5, three days after the Supreme Court filed a lawsuit against him because he is considered demented. In November, the Supreme Court, with the same justification, also rejected a request for extradition to Argentina, where Pinochet awaits trial for his involvement in the murder of Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires in 1974. Prats was the commander-in-chief of Salvador Allende who overthrew in 1973.

Chile Border Countries Map

A bribery scandal shook the military during the year. It was in February that a Belgian court opened an investigation into Chile’s purchase of the 25 Mirage Plan in 1994, where bribes of about $ 15 million are said to be involved. The Belgian liaison officer in the affair, General Jacques Lefebvre, committed suicide in 1995 after allegations of corruption. The Chilean Air Force’s own internal investigation was discontinued in 1999.

1970-73 Reforms and destabilization of the United States

The government limited itself to the implementation of simple reforms: Its most important steps were: Nationalization of the copper industry, state control of the country’s 300 largest companies, land reform with the dissolution of all estates over 80 hectares, a large-scale housing program, social system expansion and sharp increases in real wages. The battle was directed at the big monopolies power and against the lowland violence in the villages where, before 1970, 2.7% of the population owned 70% of the land. In addition, a number of local power agencies, or people’s powers as it was called in Chile, were developed: farmer councils, consumer committees, industry councils, factory committees, etc. were created. The reforms were initiated immediately after the formation of the Unidad Popular government, and as early as March 1971 the municipal elections showed that voter membership in UP had increased by around 13%. The process initiated led to the mobilization of workers, peasants and slum dwellers, which often went far beyond the framework set by the government. But at the same time, the right wing started its countermeasures against government policy.

From mid-1972, Chilean politics revolved around the outcome of the class struggle between the increasingly strong civilian offensive and the left. UP did not agree on the strategy at this stage. Outside the UP, the left-wing revolutionary movement – MIR – had also grown with a not insignificant force. Together with the left wing of the Socialist Party, the Christian Left and MAPU, MIR stood for a line that went on to continue the bourgeoisie with the bourgeoisie and did not slow down or give in to the right wing’s pressure. Among other things. a number of «uncontrolled» factory occupations, land acquisitions, housing occupations etc. took place.

The Communist Party and the Socialist Party represented by Allende gradually settled on a course aimed at consolidating what the government had already won and trying to split the right wing by entering into agreements with the Christian Democrats and moderate military people. But while the divide grew on the left, all parts of the right wing consolidated, and Allende and UP failed to bring any proper wedge into the bourgeois camp. One of the problems UP faced was the reaction in the Chilean petty bourgeoisie, which was a large number group in low-industrial Chile. All reforms and nationalizations were aimed at the big monopolies and were of immediate benefit to small traders. But the petty bourgeois political reaction was a loud protest against Allende. Therefore, a broad anti-monopoly alliance was never created that went beyond the labor movement itself. The Christian Democrats who represented these layers also went so far in their political alliance with the right wing that the leader of the party, Eduardo Frei – the president who was to revolutionize freedom in the 1960’s – eventually supported Pinochet’s coup.

Chile Country Overview

Visas and entry
Holidaymakers traveling to Chile do not need a visa to stay in the country for less than 90 days. Passport control upon arrival in Chile will distribute an entry form that must be retained until you leave the country. When it comes to food imports, the customs authorities are very strict, and fruit and meat products in particular must not be imported. If you have any doubts as to whether you have packed something in your bag, you should use the customs declaration form to state that it is. If there is a customs clearance in the bags that has not been declared, a large fine may result.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Make sure that your basic vaccinations under the national vaccination schedule are valid. In addition, we recommend both hepatitis A and B vaccination. Always check the vaccination requirements at the health center or the Vaccination Advice of the Tourist Clinic

Please check the yellow fever vaccination requirements of your destination well in advance of the trip, for example here. An international yellow fever vaccination certificate is required when traveling to some countries. Please also note that in some countries a vaccination certificate is required if you arrive from a country where yellow fever is considered to occur. This is important to consider especially when traveling across multiple states. We recommend that you keep a vaccination card with you when traveling far away.

The Chilean currency is called the peso (Peso Chileno). You should keep cash with you just in case. The U.S. dollar is used as a means of payment in some places. There is often a 6% surcharge for using the cards.
Currency can be obtained from Finland by booking in advance. Check availability and course at

Time difference to Finland
Chile’s time zone is GMT -3. In Finnish winter time -5h, in Finnish summer time -6h.

Climate Due to
the length of Chile, Chile can experience several different types of climate, from the glaciers of the south to the desert climate of the north. Chile is an earthquake-prone country and earthquakes are common. Due to the thin layer of ozone, attention should be paid to protection against ultraviolet radiation in clothing.

Electric current In
Chile, the electric current is 220 V (50 Hz). An adapter is required for devices used in Finnish sockets.

Religion: Of the religions, Roman Catholicism is the most significant in Chile, but all religions, including natural religions of African descent, are represented.

The population of South America is very photographic. However, good practices include asking permission from the person being photographed before taking the picture.