In 2002, China was a populous East Asian country with a population of 1.3 billion people. According to computerannals, it was led by the Communist Party of China and President Jiang Zemin. The economy was largely based on manufacturing and exports, with the service sector growing rapidly in recent years. In addition to services, China had begun to diversify its economy in recent years and had experienced some growth in the oil sector. Education was highly valued in China and primary school enrollment had increased significantly since market reforms began in 1978. Healthcare services were provided by both public and private institutions, though access to healthcare remained limited due to lack of infrastructure and resources. Despite its progress since 1978, poverty remained a major issue for many Chinese with over 150 million living below the poverty line. Corruption and mismanagement were also an issue as the government struggled to combat these issues with limited resources. Additionally, China faced security threats from neighboring countries such as North Korea, India, Japan, and Russia.
China. The most interesting event of the year was the Communist Party Congress in November. It became guard duty without drama: the party’s 76-year-old general secretary Jiang Zemin handed over to 59-year-old Hu Jintao, once appointed “crown prince” by Deng Xiaoping. But Jiang retained power as chairman of China’s military commission, and six of nine members of the newly elected Permanent Committee of the Politburo are Jiang’s allies. One of them, Luo Gan, has led the hunt for Falun Gong followers.
In March 2003, the change of power will be completed. Then Hu Jintao also becomes president and then Prime Minister Zhu Rongji is replaced by his “disciple” Wen Jiabao.
Human rights were a problem for China even during this year. Amnesty International criticized the thousands of executions during the “Strike Hard” campaign against crimes, of which 46 were executed just before the party congress. A Falun Gong demonstration in February on Tiananmen Square resulted in the expulsion of 53 foreigners, including Swedes.
China’s 45 million Internet users also had a difficult time. China turned off the search engines Google ® and Alta Vista ® and raided Internet cafes.
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North Korean refugees seeking asylum at embassies in Beijing were met by relative tolerance. They were allowed after negotiations to travel to South Korea.
China softened against the United States; criticized the military deployment of Americans in Central Asia, but supported the war on terror. China welcomed the US stamp of the Xinjiang separatists as terrorists. The US security police opened an office in Beijing. President George W. Bush visited China in February and received Jiang Zemin in Texas in October. The mood was positive, but China refused to support the US war plans against Iraq.
Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Beijing in December. The parties agreed that a counterbalance to the US superpower was needed. During the year, an agreement was signed on Russian supply of oil to Daqing in northern China. In this oil town, tens of thousands of workers protested against poor compensation after being rationalized – one of many worker demonstrations.
Unemployment and corruption were described during the party congress as China’s biggest problem. Against corruption, power was taken before the congress: 780,000 party members were dotted.
During the congress, a major step was taken away from Marx’s principles in order to broaden the party. Zhang Ruimun became historic when he was elected as the first private entrepreneur in the party’s central committee.
Water from Chang Jiang was released for the first time in the disputed Three Ravines pond in November. Next year, the mastodont plant will start producing energy, but it is not ready until 2009.
According to Countryaah website, national day of China is every October 1. Economic growth was 8% during the year despite the Asian recession. Gradually, China adapted to the WTO requirements by lowering tariffs and phasing out state-owned enterprises. But the United States felt that China after one year of membership should have done more.
China is investing in increasing the Zhongchan – middle class, now about 20% of the population thanks to increased wealth. But the farmers, 70% of China’s nearly 1.3 billion residents, are still poor, which Prime Minister Zhu Rongji publicly lamented.
China, who emits the second most greenhouse gas in the world, wrote on the Kyoto Protocol against emissions. The environmental problems in the country continued to be large. Deserts, which make up 30% of the country’s area, grew. More than 100 cities suffered from severe water shortages. In the summer, flooding caused serious problems in many provinces, even in deserts. Over 700 people were killed.
The UN warned of disaster unless anti-AIDS measures were launched in China. In the autumn, China recognized for the first time the AIDS problem and commissioned one million students to run a campaign against the infection. One million are now HIV-infected according to official data.
China announced that taikonauts, Chinese spacecraft, are preparing for a manned spaceflight before 2005. An unmanned aerial vehicle, Shenzhou III, completed a successful spaceflight in March.
The soccer World Cup in South Korea and Japan fared worse. China’s debut in the World Cup was over without a single Chinese goal against Brazil, Turkey or Costa Rica.
1958-61 The big leap forward
In 1958, Mao launched an attempt to solve the Chinese development problems. It was known as: “The big leap forward” and had as a basic idea a decentralization of industrial development all the way to the villages and a stronger collectivization of agricultural production.
The organizational framework for the new policy was the People’s Municipality. The emergence of peoples municipalities was partly a spontaneous process, partly a process driven by the local and central party apparatus. Already in 1958, people’s municipalities were established all over the country – approx. 26 000. The main tribe in the people’s municipality was the work team, which consisted of 20-30 families. The work team made use of the land and worked out its own production and sales plan. Above the work team was the brigade who took care of major agricultural work, irrigation plants, canals and smaller industrial companies. The brigade consisted of 150-300 families.
At the top stood the municipal council, which took care of the larger administrative tasks, the larger industry and the larger schools and hospitals, and which coordinated the larger tasks with other public municipalities. In this way, production should be able to increase considerably, while at the same time increasing production should benefit the local community directly. During 1958, more than 7 million small industries grew in the villages. produced steel, coal, cement, fertilizers and consumables. For starters, expectations were rampant. China talked about overtaking England in industrial growth over 15 years and overtaking the United States a few years later.
It was going to go quite differently. The small local industries entailed a huge waste of resources while extracting labor from agriculture. When the harvest failed at the same time, the consequence was widespread famine. It is estimated that around 20 million Chinese lost their lives in the period 1959-61 before the big leap was finally shelved. The experiment thus became one of the biggest tragedies of the century, and one of the few disasters that has released the least information.
1961-65 Mao removed as head of state
Already during the 1959 Lushan Conference, Defense Minister Peng had directed a strong attack on the strategy behind the big leap forward. He called it petty-bourgeois fanaticism, and it was about replacing realism with miraculous faith. Peng was a supporter of making the army professional and of introducing modern weapons. Peng was therefore purged.
But in 1962, Mao had to make self-criticism for his disastrous leadership of the country’s economic policy. He was replaced by Liu Shaoqi as head of state, but continued to lead the party and had the backing of the People’s Liberation Army.
During the same period, relations with the Soviet were deteriorating. Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev had already unveiled the crimes in the Soviet Union under Stalin in 1956, and had begun the cleanup after Stalin’s 30 years in power. But the Chinese did not need any showdown with Stalin. The ideological and political conflict between the two countries continued to grow until the final rupture in 1963, when the last Soviet advisers left China and Soviet assistance ceased.
Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping was now given the main responsibility for implementing a political stabilization policy in China. Professional expertise came to the fore again. The central administration gained greater control over the development. The education system again aimed to provide purely professional education. The bureaucracy increased its influence – also at the local level. The material stimuli were reintroduced. The private plots that had been abolished during the big leap were reintroduced together with private markets for agricultural products. Agriculture was given priority over the first five-year plan and greater emphasis was placed on scientific methods to increase agricultural production. In addition, emphasis was placed on limiting population growth. The new political line brought economic growth back on track.
China Country Overview
According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, CHN stands for China.
Visas As of
June 19, 2018, the prices for Chinese visas are as follows:
– Normal processing (4 days):
Single entry visa = € 128.20
Double entry visa = € 128.20
Multiple entry visa 6 months = € 128.20
Multiple entry visa 12 months = € 128.20
– Express processing (3 days):
Single entry visa = 178 €
Double entry visa = 178 €
Multiple entry visa 6 months = 178 €
Multiple entry visa 12 months = 178 €
– Urgent processing (2 working days):
Single visa = €
200.40 Double visa € 200.40
Multiple visa 6 months € 200.40
Multiple visa 12 months € 200.40
As of September 25, 2018, a biometric visa system has been introduced at the China Visa Service Center. Visas applied for after this date must be personally visited by the visa applicant at the Chinese Visa Service Center to leave fingerprints.
An applicant for a visa who has issued fingerprint identifiers within the last five years shall be exempt from the issue of fingerprint identifiers.
NOTE. The passport must be valid for 6 months after arrival.
Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.
Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.
Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.
The trip, it is advisable to check that the following vaccinations are valid: tetanus, polio, diphtheria / pertussis. In addition, we recommend hepatitis A vaccination. Always check the vaccination requirements at your health center or the vaccination advice of the tourist clinic
The currency of China is the Chinese renminbi / yuan (CNY). € 1 = about 7.5 CNY.
The currency can be changed in Finland in advance. In addition, you can withdraw money from Bank of China ATMs. Credit cards are accepted as a method of payment in Beijing. See today’s exchange rates at www.forex.fi
Time difference to Finland
China, Tibet +6 h, GMT +8 h.
in Tibet 220 V.
Check with your operator for the functionality of your phone.
The best time to visit Tibet is from May to early November. After this, the temperature drops well below zero. In May and June, there may be strong winds that lift and dust the sand. Daytime temperatures range from 12 to 18 degrees. In Lhasa, the weather is mild between May and November, although it may rain in July-August. In October-November, the sky is at its brightest, but night temperatures are starting to drop near zero. Spring does not really begin until April. Daytime temperatures rise to 15 degrees, but at night temperatures may drop to near zero. The high Tibetan winter is long, up to 9 months. The warmest months of summer are definitely better suited for tourism than winter.
The summer in many parts of China is suffocatingly hot. Winters, on the other hand, are snowy and cold. July to October are the hottest months, especially in the Beijing area. The temperatures in April and May are really pleasant, with readings of about 20 degrees.
The mountain climate is unpredictable and may change in a short time from summer to winter, so participants in the trip should be prepared for sudden changes in weather conditions. Weather changes may also cause changes to our tour schedule.
Arriving in high airspace (2500 m-3500 m) can cause headaches, loss of appetite, insomnia, and nausea in some people. When arriving in Lhasa, it is important to drink plenty of fluids, as well as try not to strain yourself physically. Symptoms due to high air area often disappear during the first days. Avoid drinking alcohol during the first few days as it slows down the body’s adjustment as well as masks any symptoms. We do not compromise on safety when moving in the mountains. Our trip is designed to allow plenty of time to adapt to the high air sector in Lhasa. Acetazolamide (Diamox / Edemia) can be used to relieve the mild symptoms of mountain sickness.
Food and drink
Chinese cuisine is different in different parts of the country. However, the basis of Chinese cuisine is rice, noodles, and the side dishes added to them, which are usually fish, beef, and vegetables. Chopsticks are commonly used in meals, and spoons are used in soups. The use of a knife and fork is not popular with locals. The food is often cut into small pieces to make it easier to eat with chopsticks. However, the fish is often served whole. Chinese food culture can be roughly divided into four parts, often defined by the names and regions of cities or provinces. Cantonese cuisine, or South Chinese cuisine, is the best known of the trends. Cantonese cuisine includes rice, bright sauces and broths, and a source of animal protein. Peking cuisine, or North Chinese cuisine, uses more grilled meat and wheat. The most commonly used meats are lamb and duck, which will also be called Peking duck. Western Chinese cuisine, or Sichuan cuisine, uses a lot of spices as well as tofu. While Eastern Chinese cuisine, or Shanghai cuisine, is based on sweeter dishes than others. The Tibetan area does not have such a rich food culture, but uses a lot of rice as well as sweet sauces as well as mutton. In Tibet, food consists mainly of Chinese food as well as local delicacies such as noodles and mum. Water and beverages must be industrially bottled. It is also a good idea to rinse fruits and vegetables with bottled water. Heated or tablet-purified water can be drunk. Reheated foods should be avoided.
Stupas are sacred temples of Buddhists. The word stupa is used only from Buddhist temples. They are tower-like structures that are hemispherical in root. Stupas symbolize the pursuit of perfection as well as enlightenment. Buddhist customs include that stupas are always rotated clockwise. This symbolizes the movement of the sun in the sky. When visiting places sacred to Buddhists, attention should be paid to dress. It is polite to keep your hands and feet covered and to take your shoes off when visiting inside buildings.
Tourism has already affected several areas in Tibet. A few important things to keep in mind when moving in this area:
- Local children should not be encouraged to beg by giving them candy, money, pens or other gifts.
• Admission fees to monasteries go to local authorities. If you want to make donations, do so by leaving the money on the altar or in the collection box.
• Do not buy products made from endangered species.
• Always ask permission to take photos of locals.
• Do not carry politically sensitive material such as photographs of the Dalai Lama, and do not embarrass locals by distributing such material.
• Avoid talking about politics with local guides. You can make them troublesome by doing so.
• Dress and behave with dignity when visiting monasteries. Cover your arms and legs.
• Buddhist Monasteries and statues are always rotated clockwise.
Lama = Tibetan religious leader.
Prepare carefully and pack lightly
Each pound of less luggage reduces the fuel consumption of the vehicle. For more passengers, this can have a significant impact. For personal hygiene, you should pack travel sizes or sample packs that not only save space but also weight. For these, however, it is a good idea to consider the amount of waste that may be generated. Depending on the destination, it is also important to take into account the local water situation – if necessary, it is advisable to favor, for example, hair products that do not require rinsing.
Travel documents and electronic reading save space and weight. For charging electronic devices, backup power sources based on a solar cell, for example, are available. For example, footwear often takes up a lot of space in a suitcase and easily accumulates the weight of the bag. Think about what equipment you really need for the trip and leave the extra items at home.