Colombia 2002

In 2002, Colombia was a South American country with a population of 45 million people. According to computerannals, it was led by President Andres Pastrana and the Congress of Colombia. The economy was largely based on agriculture, with the service sector growing rapidly in recent years. In addition to services, Colombia had begun to diversify its economy in recent years and had experienced some growth in the mining and oil sectors. Education was highly valued in Colombia and primary school enrollment had increased significantly since 1990 when democracy was restored. Healthcare services were provided by both public and private institutions, though access to healthcare remained limited due to lack of infrastructure and resources. Despite its progress since 1990, poverty remained a major issue for many Colombians with over 40 percent living below the poverty line. Corruption and mismanagement were also an issue as the government struggled to combat these issues with limited resources. Additionally, Colombia faced security threats from neighboring countries such as Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Panama, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Guatemala.

Yearbook 2002

Colombia. According to Countryaah website, national day of Colombia is every July 20. The civil war escalated during the year. First, in February, after the peace talks with the largest guerrilla group FARC, President Andrés Pastrana ordered the army to occupy the so-called relaxation zone that the FARC practically had dominion over in the southern part of the country since December 1998. The measure triggered a wave of refugees from the area.

Colombia Border Countries Map

On May 26, Álvaro Uribe (Independent, former Liberal) won the presidential election by 53% over the Liberal Party’s Horácio Serpa. During his election campaign, Uribe promised a tougher and more uncompromising attitude to the guerrillas, and in September a major offensive was launched against FARC. According to government sources, 400 FARC soldiers were killed in a month and a half. Despite, or because of, a desire to see an end to the violence in the country, Uribe’s conflict-oriented policies were welcomed by most Colombians. His strongest support in the election came, for example. from the most violent parts of the country, and a public opinion poll in August showed that the proportion of people who supported Uribe had even increased to three-quarters of the population.

On August 7, the same day that the investigation was published and Uribe swore to the presidency, the capital Bogotá was shaken by a concerted assault wave staged by FARC with a total of 21 dead. Five days later, Uribe issued 90 days of emergency in the country, and it was extended by another 90 days in November. The state of emergency has prevailed in Colombia for most of the second half of the 20th century.

However, the escalating violence during the year seemed to reach its peak already in May. During fighting between the FARC and paramilitary militias in the Chocó province, on May 2, 111 people were killed, 108 injured and 48 reported as missing in the village of Bojayá. It was the worst civilian massacre ever in Colombia. FARC was held as the main responsible for what happened, but labeled it as a mistake. However, similar fighting continued during the following days in the Province of Antioquia, with 78 dead as a result, according to many as a result of FARC’s attempt to drive away paramilitary forces from northwestern Colombia.

The United States asked in September that Carlos Castaño, leader of the AUC (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia) umbrella organization of the paramilitary forces, be extradited to stand trial. Castaño himself announced that he was willing to accept the point of indictment on cocaine smuggling but not terrorism. AUC was stamped by the US government as a terrorist organization on September 10, 2001.

1991 New peace talks

In the same year, the guerrilla groups formed the FARC, ELN and Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL, the Liberal Liberation Army) Coordinadora Guerrillera Simón Bolívar (CGSB, Guerilla Coordination Simón Bolívar), operating in 35% of the country. The guerrilla coordination also created an international battalion, Batallon America, which included partisans from MRTA in Peru and Alfaro Vive in Ecuador. In June 1991, the Gaviria government entered into negotiations with CGSB in Venezuela with regard to. the conclusion of a peace agreement to disarm the guerrillas, civilian control over Colombia’s armed forces, the dissolution of paramilitary groups and the inclusion of former partisans in legal political life.

The new constitution of July 5, 1991, created the vice presidential office, banned the re-election of the president, allowed divorce in Catholic marriages, introduced direct election of local authorities, a form of autonomy for the indigenous peoples, the opportunity for a referendum, popular legislative initiatives and gender equality. The Constitution was criticized by the Left for not allowing military people to be sued by civil courts for assault on the civilian population and for handing over police authority to the security service.

In the same year, an agreement was reached between the president and the three largest groups in the Constitutional Assembly to reduce the number of seats, and on October 27, new elections were held. Although the Liberal Party was divided into a number of different groups, it achieved 60% of the vote, while the backing for ADM-19 fell to 10%. This trend was confirmed by the subsequent municipal elections in March 92, despite an election boycott of 70%.

The peace process reached its lowest level in 1992. After interrupting the negotiations, the government published a plan for “continuous warfare” involving attacks on civilian organizations affiliated with the guerrilla. The CGSB resisted the army’s offensive and continued its military actions. At the same time, the activity of the paramilitary groups increased again. It was concentrated around the central parts of the Magdalena valley, Boyacá and Medellín town. The violence led to an extensive influx of refugees from the conflict areas to other parts of the country.

Colombia Country Overview

Finns do not need a visa, but a valid passport is enough. NOTE. The passport must be valid for 6 months from arrival in the country.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

The recommended vaccinations are all vaccines included in the national vaccination program and in addition Hepatitis A + B. On our tours, we also recommend taking the yellow fever vaccination. However, yellow fever vaccination is not mandatory when arriving from Europe to Colombia.

Please check the yellow fever vaccination requirements of your destination well in advance of the trip, for example here. An international yellow fever vaccination certificate is required when traveling to some countries. Please also note that in some countries a vaccination certificate is required if you arrive from a country where yellow fever is considered to occur. This is important to consider especially when traveling across multiple states. We recommend that you keep a vaccination card with you when traveling far away.

Please also note that there is malaria in the country in jungle areas and a low risk also exists in more populated areas. In these low-risk areas, it’s a good idea to remember to use mosquito repellent and protect yourself from mosquito bites in the evenings. Always check the vaccination requirements at the health center or the vaccination advice of the tourist clinic at

Currency: The Colombian currency is the Colombian Peso (COP). Currency can be obtained from Finland by booking in advance. Check availability and course at

Tips In
taxis, it is customary to round the amount to the nearest 500-1000 pesos.

Time difference to Finland
The time difference from Colombia to Finland is -8 hours in Finland in summer and -7 hours in Finland in winter.

Electric current In
Colombia, the electric current is 110V. The outlet is similar to the United States, so an adapter is required for devices used in Finnish outlets.

Mobile phones
Check with your operator for phone coverage at destinations. The area code for Colombia is +57.

The general rule is that it is winter in Colombia when it is summer in Finland and vice versa. Because Colombia is part of a hot and humid tropics, the climate varies greatly not only with the seasons but also with regions and altitude differences. The climate of the Colombian capital, Bogota, is said to resemble a Finnish summer, between one hundred and a year, the average annual temperature in the city is 20C, while in the Colombian Caribbean, San Andres, the average annual temperature is 30C. The rainy season in Colombia is mainly from April to May to October-November.

Travel Seasons In
Colombia, the rainy season is from April to May and from October to November. The Bogota area is good for traveling all year round and the temperature stays around 20 degrees. In Colombia, the Caribbean has an average temperature of about 30 degrees and rainfall increases during the winter season.

Religion: In the country, 90% are Roman Catholic and 10% are other religious groups. Colombians are a religious people, as in most South American states. Religion is evident in their daily lives.

fee There is no exit fee for leaving Colombia. NOTE! Charges are subject to change by local authorities.

The population of South America is very photographic. However, good manners include asking permission from the person being photographed, before taking the picture. You may also be asked for tips on photography.