In 2002, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a large central African nation with a population of over 60 million people. According to computerannals, it was governed by President Joseph Kabila and the National Assembly. The economy was largely based on natural resources, with mining playing a major role. In addition to natural resources, the DRC had begun to diversify its economy in recent years and had experienced some growth in the agricultural sector. Education was highly valued in the DRC and primary school enrollment had increased significantly since independence in 1960. Healthcare services were provided by both public and private institutions, though access to healthcare remained limited due to lack of infrastructure and resources. Despite its progress since 1960, poverty remained a major issue for many Congolese with over 70 percent living below the poverty line. Corruption and mismanagement were also an issue as the government struggled to combat these issues with limited resources. Additionally, the DRC faced security threats from neighboring countries such as Sudan, Angola and Zambia.
Congo. The peace process, which stalled towards the end of 2001, gained momentum and after negotiations in Sun City in South Africa, the government and the Ugandan-backed rebel movement MLC (the Congolese Liberation Movement) wrote in April under a power-sharing agreement. According to the agreement, MLC leader Jean-Pierre Bemba would become prime minister in a transitional government.
According to Countryaah website, national day of Democratic Republic of Congo is every June 30. The Rwandan-backed rebel movement RCD (Assembly for a Democratic Congo) rejected the deal and was supported in its criticism by opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi. RCD declined the offer to take the post of President of Parliament. However, no transitional government ever appeared. The continued negotiations on the details of the settlement took hold and in September Bemba said the agreement had failed.
Meanwhile, negotiations continued to wind down the international involvement in K. In July, the government made peace with Rwanda, which sent more than 20,000 soldiers to K. to harm Rwandan militia. K. promised to disarm the militia and send them home with the help of the UN. In September, a peace agreement was signed with Uganda.
During the autumn, a rapid foreign retreat took place and at the end of October it was announced that all government troops from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zimbabwe and Angola had left K. An exception was made for a thousand Ugandan soldiers who were left in the northeastern K. at the UN’s request. to avoid a dangerous power vacuum. After the Rwandan retreat, fighting in the Kivu region erupted between rebel factions and the so-called Mai-Mai militia.
Peace talks resumed in the autumn in South Africa and led in mid-December to an agreement on a provisional unity government. President Joseph Kabila remains in office for at least two years, and in turn receives four vice presidents representing the government, the political opposition and the two rebel movements. These four groupings plus “civil society” as well as Mai-Mai and two outbreak groups from the RCD are also represented in the government and the provisional parliament. General elections shall be held within a maximum of three years after the transitional government has taken office. Despite the peace agreement, fighting in the northeast continued between minor rebel movements.
The successful peace work led to K. again receiving financial support. The EU has allocated € 120 million after a ten-year stoppage of aid. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) granted a $ 750 million loan to fight poverty and promote economic growth, while the World Bank lent $ 410 million. The IMF also considered future depreciation of parts of K’s foreign debt of $ 13 billion.
In July 2012, ICC sentenced Thomas Lubanga Dyilo to 14 years in prison. In March, he had been found guilty of war crimes and of recruiting children under 15 to his military. He was president of the Union of Congolese Patriots and head of its armed branch FPLC. That same year, the ICC issued arrest warrants on several Congolese war commanders.
During the period November 2013 – February 2014, the police in Kinshasa conducted Operation Likofi, which was to fight the gang crime in the capital. When the operation was over after 3 months, 51 young men and boys were killed.
In March 2014, ICC Germain Katanga pleaded guilty to war crimes and crimes against humanity for the attacks on civilians in Bogoro, Ituri in February 2003. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Katanga was a former leader of the FPRI rebel movement. He decided not to appeal the verdict and apologized to the victims. In June, the court announced that it was working on 18 charges of war crimes against Bosco Ntaganda, a former Congolese officer and leader of a number of armed groups in the Congo supported by Rwanda since the late 1990s. The crimes were committed in northeastern Congo in 2002-03. Ntaganda had surrendered to the US Embassy in Rwanda in March 2013 and had been transferred into the ICC’s custody.
Despite the UN’s MONUSCO strengthening presence in eastern Congo, the region remains one of the most dangerous in the world. Up to 400,000 women and girls are subjected to rape by government forces and rebel groups every year; children under 15 are recruited by the rebel groups as soldiers; hundreds of thousands remain internally displaced. With the violent conflicts as a basis, the other human rights have tight conditions, and the impunity for crimes and offenses is pervasive, with the ICC’s lawsuits against captured militia leaders being the exception.
In January 2015, demonstrations led by students from the University of Kinshasa broke out. The background was the publication of a new law that would allow President Kabila to remain in office until a census was conducted in the country. Otherwise, presidential elections were scheduled for implementation in 2016. After 2 days of clashes between police and protesters, at least 42 were killed. Despite the demonstrations, the parliament passed the law a week later, but without the addition that Kabila could be sitting in the presidential post.
Djibouti Country Overview
Finnish citizens need a visa when traveling to Djibouti. Our customers receive a visa from the border for 95 USD. Visa policies and rates are subject to change without notice depending on local authorities.
- According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, DJU stands for Djibouti.
Every person participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.
Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.
Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.
Check that your basic vaccinations are valid (tetanus, polio and diphtheria). Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are recommended for the trip. There is no yellow fever in the country, but there is a risk of malaria in the country. Always check the vaccination requirements at the health center or the Vaccination Advice of the Tourist Clinic
Currency: The currency of Djibouti is the Djibouti Franc (DJF). You can usually also pay in cash in euros and dollars.
The service charge is usually included in the invoice price. You can give a little tip about good service.
In summer the same time as in Finland, in winter the difference is +1 hour.
The electric current is 220 V / 50 Hz. An adapter is not required for Finnish devices.
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Djibouti is +253.