Throughout history and until 1890, the year in which Italy colonized the territory and delimited it, the area of Eritrea had been part of several empires and kingdoms in the region. The Kingdom of Italy created the colony of Eritrea in 1890 and maintained it until the Second World War, with the same borders as the Republic of Eritrea today. Railway in Eritrea built by the Italians.
Italians brought great development to Italian Eritrea, from agriculture to basic industries through infrastructure. The capital Asmara was the theater of an architectural development (mainly in Art Deco) that is still admired worldwide today. By 1940there were about 100,000 Italian settlers in Eritrea, which had repercussions on the architecture of some of its cities and on the religion of its residents.
In 1941 Eritrea was conquered by the English and became part of the colonial administration of Great Britain. In 1952 it federated with Ethiopia until in 1962 the union dissolved and it was demoted to a province.
The resistance then acted against the Ethiopian state, following various conflicts that turned into open warfare in 1983. After four years, and already under the control of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Eritrea, in 1987 it was declared an autonomous region again.
In 1993 it obtained independence and the country was recognized internationally. That did not prevent subsequent territorial conflicts with Yemen in 1996 and with Ethiopia again in 1997 and 2000.
The intervention of the UN and the definitive establishment of borders in April 2002, by resolution of the International Court of Justice, temporarily halted the war, but Ethiopia has not yet accepted the resolution presented by the International Court of Justice. Therefore, the work of delimiting the border is not finished and the threat of war between the two countries still persists.
After the referendum in April 1993, Eritrea proclaimed itself an independent state. Once a transitional government was established, the governing and administrative bodies were formed, which were later modified according to the following structure:
- The Consultative Council, later converted into the Council of State, formed as a Council of Ministers plus the territorial representatives.
- The National Assembly as a legislative branch, made up of the Central Committee of the EPLF, 30 provincial representatives and 30 representatives of the single party and later by 5 representatives of the single party and another 75 elected by the provinces.
- The judicial power.
According to educationvv, Eritrea is located in eastern Africa, specifically in the region known as the African horn.
The country is practically by one of the longest mountain ranges in the world, the Great Rift Valley; its zone is fertile, but as one advances towards the west the terrain becomes desert.
In the north there is an extension of the Ethiopian massif with altitudes that reach 2,600 meters and where large tropical rainfall occurs. This region is bounded by the Barka, Gash and Anseba rivers.
The Northeast, for its part, is made up of a very dry plain. Dahlak Islands.
The coastal strip, to the west, faces the Red Sea and has more than 1,000 km of coastline, although it goes very little into the continent, especially in the southern area; annual highs of 50 ° C are reached in this region.
The highlands of southern Eritrea are drier and cooler than the rest of the country. The Dahlak Islands are located a few kilometers off the coast; its waters are rich in fishing.
Eritrea is home to the Danakil Desert and the Kobar Depression, located 130 meters below sea level.
The predominant biomes in Eritrea are the savannah in the interior and the desert on the coast. The WWF divides the territory of Eritrea between seven ecoregions, from west to east.
Eastern Sudanese savanna
It is located in the extreme southeast of the country, on the border with Ethiopia and Sudan. It occupies an area of 917,600 square kilometers.
Sahel acacia savanna
It is located in the west of the country.
Montana rainforest of ethiopia
It is located in the north, in the extension of the Ethiopian massif, between 1,100 and 1,800 meters above sea level.
Mountain Prairie and Highlands of Ethiopia
It is located in the Ethiopian massif, above 1,800 meters above sea level.
Somali bush savanna
It is located in a narrow strip to the east of the Ethiopian massif. It occupies an area of more than 1,000,000 square kilometers.
Xerophilous grassland and scrub of Ethiopia
It is located on the east coast of Eritrea. It occupies an area of 152,000 square kilometers.
Eritrea coastal desert
It is located in the extreme southeast, on the coast of the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait. It is a desert ecoregion that covers an area of 4,400 square kilometers, ranging from Balfair Assoli in Eritrea to Ras Bir in Djibouti.
After independence in 1993, Eritrea maintained a subsistence economy similar to that of many other African countries, with about 80% of the population employed in agriculture and livestock, aggravated by successive wars with Ethiopia.
After the offensive of 2000, Eritrea recorded losses of more than 825 million dollars, with serious damages in the agricultural sector, maintaining negative growth of its economy for three years.
After the conflict, thanks to government intervention, important improvements have been achieved in ports, airports and road communications, although it is still a long way from achieving a significant decrease in the unemployment rate and stabilizing the economy so that it is interesting for foreign investment. However, Eritrea has a strategic commercial position in the Red Sea and its mineral reserves of marble, granite, silver, copper, zinc, gold and silica are very important.