Ethiopia. In April, the United Nations Border Commission presented a new border crossing between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopia considered itself to have met its demands on most points, but ambiguities in the report allowed Eritrea to claim the village of Badme, whose disputed affiliation triggered the war between the two countries in 1998. Ethiopia demanded a revision of the commission’s report but was rejected.
According to Countryaah website, national day of Ethiopia is every July 23. Work on Ethiopia’s largest hydropower project was initiated by a Chinese company on the Tekeze River. The dam will be completed in 2007 and will be 185 meters high. The Tekeze dam will provide water to significant parts of northern Ethiopia. The country does not really have a shortage of water, but the precipitation falls unevenly and often fails completely in some areas.
This problem led to new alarms about imminent famine during the autumn. Up to 15 million people were said to be acutely starved unless large efforts were made quickly. However, Ethiopia is now considered better equipped to avoid a disaster similar to the one in the mid-1980s.
In July 2011, two Swedish journalists were arrested. They had traveled inland to report on the conflict in the Ogaden area. In September, they were tried and on December 27, they were each sentenced to 11 years in prison for terrorism and for illegally entering the country.
Prime Minister Zenawi died after an infection in August 2012. The post was taken over by former Foreign Minister Hailemariam Desalegn.
In March 2012, Ethiopia attacked a number of military posts on the border with Eritrea. Acc. Ethiopia was the recognition for Eritrean support for Ethiopian partisan groups. Eritrea refused to support those concerned.
Through 2012, the government continued to offer large tracts of land to foreign investors. This often coincided with the government’s expulsion or forced removal of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians. During the year, clashes again occurred between the Ethiopian army, security forces and armed groups in the Oromia, Afar and Somali regions in particular. At the same time, Ethiopia participated in the ongoing military operations inside Somalia, where there were frequent reports of executions, arbitrary detention, torture and ill-treatment by the Ethiopian forces.
In 2012, a number of journalists and members of the opposition were sentenced to lengthy prison sentences in the context of terrorist legislation, solely for calling for reforms, criticizing the government or for relations with peaceful NGOs. The “evidence” against the convicted was, in almost all cases, the common embodiment of freedom of speech and assembly. In July-November, hundreds of Muslims were arrested, alone for participating in peaceful demonstrations against restrictions on religious freedom. Although many were subsequently released, others remained detained – including the leaders of the demonstrations. Authorities made significant efforts to crush the protests and prevent the media from reporting on them. A large number of news, political and human rights Web sites were blocked during the year,
In October, the Supreme Court upheld a previous order to freeze $ 1 million US $ in funds belonging to the country’s two main human rights organizations: the Human Rights Council and the Association of Women Ethiopian Lawyers. The funds were frozen in 2009 when the government passed a new NGO law.
In 2012, Ethiopia initiated the construction of a huge dam over the Nile which, when completed in 2018, will produce 6,000MW. The project caused a deterioration in relations with Egypt this year, fearing that the dam project would mean less water in the Nile, the lifeblood of Egypt.