France Literature Part III

Among the writers, in recent years, in addition to Sarraute, Br. Sagan and Br. Mallet-Joris, Béatrix Beck (b. 1914), whose contents bear an autobiographical imprint, and Célia Bertin, who she too came actively orienting the original pessimism: both animated by an unscrupulous passion for reality.

In poetry it is possible to perceive a certain revival of traditional meters and ways, with results not devoid of nobility especially in V. Muselli (1879-1957), author of Les douze pas des muses (1952), La barque allait entre ces rives (1954)), Intus et sursum (1956) and Ph. Chabaneix (b. 1898), to whom we owe Les nocturnes (1950), Mémoires du coeur (1952), Aux sources de la nuit (1955). Large is the group of new poets of Christian inspiration: Lanza del Vasto (Le chansonnier populaire); J. Grosjean (b.1912), which refers to biblical themes (Hypostases, 1950; Le livre du juste, 1952; Fils de l’Homme, 1954; Les prophètes, 1955); J. Cayrol (Le charnier natal, 1950; Les mots sont aussi des demeures, 1952; Pour tous les temps, 1955); J.-C. Renard (Haute mer ; Métamorphoses du monde, 1951; Pèrevoici que l’homme, 1955) perhaps the most gifted and the most intense. Notable among the Marxists are Guillevic (b.1907) to whom we owe, among other things, Les chansons d ‘ Antonin BlondEnvie de vivreTerre à bonheur ; J. Marcenac (b. 1911), militant verse, Ch. Dobzinsky (b. 1929), Cl. Sernet. In the context of the second surrealistic generation the inclination to the essay and the novel is prevalent; poets can be considered epigones. However, some, particularly among those who have nourished themselves with surrealism as a source of education, are able to express a non-negligible Personality: thus R. Ganzo (b.1898), G. Audisio (b.1900), R. Goffin (n.. 1898), A. Borne (b. 1915), J. Tardieu (b. 1903) and above all M. Leiris (b. 1901) driven by his ethnological culture to the representation of an erotic-mystical ritual.

Other notable figures of poets are J. Follain (b. 1903; Chef-LieuLes choses donnéesTerritoires, 1953; Toui instant, 1958) oriented towards recitative prosaicism; M. Fombeure (b. 1906) who in Les étoiles brûlées (1950), Pendant que vous dormez(1953), Une forêt de charme (1955) expresses a popular musicality; A. Frénaud, tending towards metaphysical poetry. Among the young people are A. Bosquet (b.1919; À la mémoire de ma planète, 1948; Langue morte, 1951; Quel royaume oublié?, 1955; Premier testament, 1957), ideally close to Becket, but turning to humor; Ch. Le Quintrec (b. 1926; La lampe du corps, 1949; Les temps obscurs, 1954; Les noces de la terre, 1957), Catholic and admirer of Rimbaud; R. Sabatier (b. 1923; Les fêtes solaires, 1955) from the musical verse inspired by an optimistic conception which contrasts the new “super-romantic” rebellion of J.-C. Ibert (b. 1928; Portes ouvertes, 1951; Le pètil de vivre, 1951; l’ Espace d’une main, 1952; Le saut de l’ange, 1957).

According to thereligionfaqs, the poetic “avant-gardes” are almost on the verge of exhaustion also due to the lack of a controversy that contests their extremisms and reactivates their interest.

Nothing remarkable, in fact, if not the personalities of H. Pichette (b.1924 ; Apoèmes, 1947; Le point vélique, 1950; Revendications, 1958) who resolves his lyricism in the impetus of iterations and enumerations, but now also tries ‘he a humanistic reconstruction; by Y. Bonnefoy (b.1923 ; Du mouvement et de l’immobilité de Douve, 1954; Hier régnant désert, 1958) whose verses are based on an often monotonous game of antithesis and I. Isou (b.1925) whose “lettrism” is nothing but an asemantic phoneticism perpetually poised between pleasantness and ridicule.

Contemporary theater is increasingly establishing itself as a theater of ideas. Few, however, the personalities revealed in the last decade. Remarkable is what has been defined as a “metaphysical antitheater” based on the abolition not only of scenic conventions, but of the very declarativeness of dramatic language.

In this sense, the most interesting experiences appear to be those of A. Adamov (La parodie, 1950; L’invasion, 1951; La grande et la petite manoeuvre, 1951; Tous contre tous ; Le professeur Taranne, 1953; Paolo Paoli, 1957), whose dominant sentiment is that of an unadorned and destructive irony; and E. Ionesco (b.1912 ; La cantatrice chauve, 1949; La leçon, 1950; Jacques ou la soumission ; Les chaises, 1952; Victimes du devoir, 1953; Amédée, 1954; Le nouveau locataire, 1954; The impromptu de l’Alma ; Tueur sans gage), whose absurdity usually consists in replacing the drama of reality with the hallucinatory drama of situations imagined, but not experienced, by the protagonists. Beckett’s idea of ​​theater is even more radically negative (En attendant Godot, 1952; Fin de partie, 1957; Acte sans parole, 1957; Tous ceux qui tombent, 1957); the expectation of the new is nothing but the expectation of death in a life seen as a simple postponement of dying. Nothing positive intervenes to redeem this emptying of existential contents in a permanent situation of terror.

France Public Finance