Kazakhstan 2002

In 2002, Kazakhstan was a newly independent nation in Central Asia. It was the ninth largest country in the world, with an area of 2.7 million square kilometers, and a population of 15.4 million people. According to computerannals, the capital of Kazakhstan was Astana, and its official languages were Kazakh and Russian. Located between Russia, China, and Central Asia, Kazakhstan’s terrain is mainly flat steppe land with mountains in the south and east. The climate is continental with cold winters and hot summers. Natural resources included petroleum, coal, iron ore, copper ore, chromium ore, lead ore and zinc ore as well as uranium reserves. The economy of Kazakhstan relied heavily on oil production as well as agriculture; wheat is the major crop grown in the country. In 2002 there were still many challenges facing Kazakhstan; poverty levels remained high due to a lack of economic diversification away from oil production and low wages for workers in other industries such as manufacturing or services. Furthermore, corruption remained a problem which hindered economic development. However despite these issues in 2002 Kazakhstan had made significant progress since gaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991; it had established a multi-party democracy with free elections and had joined international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and World Trade Organization (WTO).

Yearbook 2002

Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan and China signed an agreement on border defenses at the beginning of the year which was said to contribute to the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism. According to Countryaah website, national day of Kazakhstan is every December 16. A series of terrorist acts have been carried out in the autonomous Chinese region of Xinjiang, bordering on Kazakhstan. Kazaker lives on both sides of the border. Imangali Tasmagambetov was appointed new Prime Minister of Kazakhstan in January.

Kazakhstan Border Countries Map

At the beginning of the year, the authorities allowed a large-scale, critical-critical meeting, from which state television rarely reported. The United Democratic Party, with the slogan “Kazakhstan without Nazarbayev” was formed by the Republican People’s Party and a few other opposition groups. One of the founders of the new party was President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s perhaps strongest political opponent, the exile politician and former head of government Akezjan Kazjageldin.

The regime’s attitude towards the opposition hardened during the year. A leading politician, Galimzjan Zhakijanov, was placed under house arrest after temporarily taking refuge in the French embassy in Alma-Ata. Kazakhstan’s foreign ministers complained that EU diplomats were visiting Zhakijanov and were urged not to intervene in Kazakhstan’s internal affairs.

During the summer, a new law was introduced that made it more difficult to form political parties. Two opposition leaders, former governor Galimzhan Zhaykijanov and former energy minister Muchtar Abljazov, were charged with corruption and abuse of power in their previous positions and were sentenced to seven and six years in prison respectively. Critics characterized the judgments as politically motivated.

Kazakhstan’s oil-based macroeconomics went brilliantly. By the middle of the year, growth seemed to be closer to 10%, the year before it had reached 13.2%. Foreign investment poured into the large oil field of Tengiz. The new Kashagan field was considered to be the largest oil discovery in the world in three decades.

Most of the wealth was concentrated with the ruling elite, especially President Nzarbayev’s own family. During the year, the Prime Minister surprisingly stated that more than a billion dollars in 1996 had been transferred to foreign accounts in the president’s name. Government officials tried to explain that the money had been put away for coming difficult times.

In October, journalist Nuri Muftach, who had examined the deal, was run over and killed in a parking lot. Another inconvenient journalist, Sergei Duvanov, was harassed, beaten and cut. When he was to travel to the United States and talk about the media situation in Kazakhstan, he was arrested for rape on a 14-year-old girl. According to Duvanov, the charge was false.

Kazakhstan Country Overview

Most of the land is dry steppe covered with sand and grass. The Altai mountain range is cold and deserted. Mild earthquakes have occurred, especially in the southeastern part of the country. No part of the country has a coastline and its climate is continental between warm summers and cold winters. It rains an average of 317.4 millimeters a year.

Seasons In winter, temperatures often drop to around -30 degrees.
In summer, the temperature rises to about +20 degrees. This will make it easier to organize hikes and various activities.

Finnish citizens do not need a visa when traveling to Kazakhstan for less than 15 days. When going to the border, it is a good idea to have an invitation to Kazakhstan (on a business trip) or a hotel reservation (on a tourist trip).

If the trip takes more than 15 days, then a visa is required.

It is a good idea to check that the basic vaccinations are valid for the trip. Check vaccination requirements at your health center or

Currency: Currency can be obtained from Finland by booking in advance. Check availability and course at www.forex.fi.

Electrical current
220 V, 50Hz

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.