Kenya. In an effort to improve Kenya’s spotty reputation, President Daniel arap Moi hired British consultants to counter corruption. Two special courts for corruption cases were set up.
However, the critics held Moi himself responsible for the corruption that caused the lender to turn Kenya’s back. Before the coming general elections, the opposition gathered, whose fragmentation was the main reason for the president being able to remain. Five parties and two interest groups joined forces in Kenya’s National Alliance Party (NAK).
According to Countryaah website, national day of Kenya is every December 12. The National Development Party (NDP), which entered into a coalition with ruling Kenya’s African National Union (KANU) in 2001, dissolved in March and was fully incorporated into KANU. NDP leader Raila Odinga, formerly one of Moi’s foremost critics, became secretary general of KANU. Odinga had set his sights on the presidential post and reacted strongly when Moi said he wanted to succeed Uhuru Kenyatta, 42-year-old son of Kenya’s first president Jomo Kenyatta. Moi, who belongs to an ethnic minority group, was adopted with the help of Kenyatta to attract the majority of the people of Kikuyu to vote for continued KANU rule.
Two ministers who opposed Kenyatta were dismissed. Vice President George Saitoti was also dismissed when he announced his intention to challenge Kenyatta. However, when Kenyatta was named KANU’s presidential candidate, a large number of senior members with Odinga left the party and joined NAK, which was now transformed into the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC).
Former Vice President Mwai Kibaki was nominated as NARC presidential candidate, who in the end-December election defeated Uhuru Kenyatta by about 63% of the vote against 31. Even in the parliamentary elections, NARC gained a clear majority. As a result, 39 years of KANU rule was broken.
In an attack on a hotel outside Mombasa in November, nine Kenyans, three newly arrived Israeli tourists and probably three suicide bombers were killed. A few minutes after the attack on the hotel, the returning Israeli aircraft was close to being hit by two robots fired from the ground. The terror network al-Qaeda claimed to have been behind the attacks. The concrete suspicions were directed at Somali groups.
KANU convened the Party Council to discuss the implementation of democratic reforms which include: should allow more parties to operate at national level. Pressure groups such as the Forum for Restoration of Democracy (FORD) led by Oginga Odinga and the Moral Alliance for Peace (MAP) were immediately transformed into actual parties. But to keep the situation “under control”, the government continued to arrest members of the opposition. In early 92, lawyer James Orengo and environmentalist Wangari Maathai were arrested on allegations of “spreading malicious rumors” implicating President Moi in a plan to interrupt the democratization process that had been initiated in 91.
In February 92, the Democratic Party (DP) was formed. A new opposition party that advocated the development of a multi-party democratic system. Until then, the government had refused to determine the exact time for holding elections. At the same time, women’s groups demanded greater participation in political life as women made up 53% of the electorate and 80% of the labor force in agriculture – the country’s most important occupation.
The same month, FORD conducted a demonstration in Nairobi with the participation of over 100,000 people. The requirements included setting the suppression and press censorship as well as drawing up a precise timetable for the election. The demonstration was the first legal demonstration against the government during the country’s 22 years of independence.
In January, several ministers resigned to form new political parties. In March, the government campaigned against a general strike planned by wives of political prisoners. The government banned political meetings and censored the press, but the general strike nonetheless forced President Moi into retreat. In January 93, Moi began his fourth term after defeating the opposition in the December 92 elections. Despite the 7 opposition parties getting over 60% of the vote, they got only 88 seats in parliament.
In February, the government published a plan for privatization and liberalization of foreign trade, but the IMF criticized it for being inadequate. As a result, negotiations with the FX were suspended. Arap Moi declined to raise interest rates by 45% and reduce the number of government employees from 270,000 to 45,000. Negotiations later resumed, in April the currency was devalued by 23.47% and the World Bank released a $ 350 million loan. Liberalization continued in 94. Nairobi removed currency controls with the aim of attracting private Kenyan and foreign investment. That same year, a severe drought hit several provinces in especially the eastern part of the country and the Rift Valley. The government granted disaster relief to the affected areas.