Malaysia 2002

In 2002, Malaysia was a developing nation with a population of around 22 million people. The economy was largely based on the manufacturing and services sectors, which accounted for almost two-thirds of the country’s GDP. The main export commodities were electronics and electrical goods, palm oil, rubber and timber. In terms of infrastructure, the country had relatively good access to roads and telecommunications networks, as well as an efficient transport system. Education was also relatively good with approximately 90% of the population being literate. Despite these advantages, Malaysia had been making progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction. According to computerannals, the government had implemented several economic reform measures such as reducing trade tariffs and increasing foreign investment which had helped to boost the country’s economy. In addition, efforts were being made to improve health care services and access to education for all citizens. However, much remained to be done in order for Malaysia to reach its full potential as a developed nation.

Yearbook 2002

Malaysia. According to Countryaah website, national day of Malaysia is every August 31. The country’s prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad, who has dominated politics for over 20 years, announced during the summer that he would step down as head of government, finance minister and leader of the UMNO party in late 2003. The country’s deputy prime minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi would then succeed him.

Malaysia Border Countries Map

Mahathir has contributed greatly to making Malaysia a modern, centralized state with a successful economy, but he has also been criticized for an authoritarian leadership style.

Malaysia was significantly affected during the year by the effects of the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The country adopted a moderate attitude among the world’s Muslim countries. Mahathir quickly joined the international campaign against terrorism and relations with the United States improved. In the spring, when he called all suicide bombers terrorists, the tense relationship with Israel also improved. Several militant Islamists were arrested during the year for links to the al-Qaeda terrorist network.

The opposition accused Mahathir of using the fight against terrorism to win domestic political points against the Islamist PAS party. PAS’s popularity declined after the terrorist attacks and in the summer its strong leader, Fadzil Noor, passed away. His successor, Datuk Abdul Hadi Awang, is believed to be a more radical Islamist, further reducing the party’s popularity.

M’s attitude to the approximately one million illegal immigrants living in the country has hardened. An allowance was made against the many workers from neighboring countries who came to the country during the boom in the 1990s and who, after the 1998 Asian crisis, have not been as sought after.

Thousands of Filipinos and Indonesians were arrested and their homes or tents demolished. A new stricter immigration law came into force which, among other things, meant that prison and whip punishment could be punished against people who stayed illegally in the country. The law led to more than 300,000 foreigners leaving the country. A month later, the government went out and said it was prepared to re-host the guest workers after the country’s construction sector complained of labor shortages.

The country’s imprisoned former finance and deputy prime minister, Anwar Ibrahim, tried to appeal against the conviction for corruption that gave him six years in prison. In July he lost in the Court of Appeal.


Plans are being scrapped on a train route to Singapore

December 31st

Malaysia and Singapore are scrapping an agreement from 2016 to build a 350 km long high-speed railway line between the countries. It is above all Malaysia that does not want to go ahead with the project that has become too expensive for the country’s corona – affected economy. The train would have shortened the travel time between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore from today’s car journey of just over four hours to 90 minutes. However, the project has proved costly and the countries have not been able to agree on all the details.


Asian countries form record trade cooperation

November 15

Fifteen countries in Asia and the Pacific region sign the RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) trade agreement. The members are some of the world’s largest economies: China, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the ten Southeast Asian Asian countries. Together, they account for almost a third of the world’s total GDP. The cooperation needs to be ratified by nine countries, of which six are ASEAN members, in order to enter into force. India participated for a long time in the negotiations, but chose to withdraw in 2019 due to concerns about the consequences for domestic production. The United States stands outside the RCEP, which has been seen as a Chinese response to the major US trade initiative TPP, which when Washington withdrew from 2017 was renamed the CPTPP.

Malaysia Country Overview

Finnish citizens can stay in Malaysia for 3 months without a visa. The passport must be valid for 6 months after leaving the country.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Recommended vaccinations In
addition to the basic vaccinations (tetanus, diphtheria and polio), hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for the trip. Malaria medication is necessary based on a risk assessment. Please always check the vaccination requirements with your health center or the tourist clinic’s vaccination advice.

Currency: Malaysian currency rings (MYR) can be exchanged in Finland. Credit cards are also available in major cities, although there may be a few percent extra charge.

Check for more information on currency, availability and exchange rate at

The recommended currency is the euro.

Time difference
Malaysia +6 hours. In summer +5 hours.

The voltage in Malaysia is exactly the same as in Finland, ie 220 V. However, it is good to note that the socket is different, it has three openings instead of two. For this purpose, an accessory is required for devices used in Finnish sockets.

Mobile phones
Check coverage with your operator.

Borneo has a tropical climate and little variation in temperature throughout the year. The temperature rarely drops below 20 degrees at night and climbs to 35 degrees during the day. There is no actual rainy season in Borneo, but it usually rains more than normal during November-January. The climate is at its best in Finnish summer time. At the equator, daily tropical deaf rain is common. The relative humidity of the air is 89-95%.

Food and drink
Malaysian cuisine is inspired by Chinese, Indian and Malay food culture. The raw materials used are, among other things, rice rice jelly (hor fun) of Chinese origin and salty soybean spice (taucheo). Food in a Malaysian home is often eaten by hand from a plate or banana leaf. Everyday dishes include a large bowl of rice, a few curries, a little vegetable, and a variety of side dishes like Sambal. A variety of chiles are used very much. For example, cooking methods involve brewing curries in an aluminum or clay pot, which has now been partially replaced by ordinary casserole pans. Steam cooking and quick frying are also common, as are various types of noodles and rice dishes. Laksa is a well-known coconut-based Malaysian spicy noodle soup. The soup contains noodles, plenty of vegetables as well as a choice of chicken, shrimp or tofu. The soup is finished with fresh herbs such as Thai basil, coriander and chili slices. Water and beverages must be industrially bottled. It is also a good idea to rinse fruits and vegetables with bottled water. Heated or tablet-purified water can be drunk. Reheated foods should be avoided.

Seasons The climate in Malaysia is hot and humid all year round. On the mainland, from September to March, there is a rainy season. On the west coast, the rainy season is from May to October. The temperature does not usually drop below 20 degrees.

The main religion of Malaysia and at the same time the state religion is Islam. Despite this, there is religious freedom in Malaysia. However, Muslims have e.g. its own tax practice, its own courts, and all state-sponsored schools provide Islamic instruction. Islam was first adopted by the rulers of the country and thus can be considered a kind of elite religion.

Exit fees and airport taxes Airport
taxes are included in the flight tickets. No exit fees are charged.

Good to know
We ask participants to respect the nature, customs and people of the country and also to dress accordingly. Women in particular should avoid clothes that are too tight and reveal the surface when moving around the cities.

Prepare carefully and pack lightly
Each pound of less luggage reduces the fuel consumption of the vehicle. For more passengers, this can have a significant impact. For personal hygiene, you should pack travel sizes or sample packs that not only save space but also weight. For these, however, it is a good idea to consider the amount of waste that may be generated. Depending on the destination, it is also important to take into account the local water situation – if necessary, it is advisable to favor, for example, hair products that do not require rinsing.

Travel documents and electronic reading save space and weight. For charging electronic devices, backup power sources based on a solar cell, for example, are available. For example, footwear often takes up a lot of space in a suitcase and easily accumulates the weight of the bag. Think about what equipment you really need for the trip and leave the extra items at home.