Mexico 2002

In 2002, Mexico was a large, diverse country located in North America with a population of approximately 103 million people. The economy was largely based on the oil and gas industry, manufacturing and agriculture. In terms of infrastructure, the country had relatively good access to roads and telecommunications networks although there were still areas with limited access. Education was also relatively good with approximately 82% of the population being literate. According to computerannals, Mexico had been making progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction. The government had implemented several economic reform measures such as reducing trade tariffs and increasing foreign investment which had helped to boost the country’s economy. In addition, efforts were being made to improve health care services and access to education for all citizens. As a result of these initiatives, Mexico had achieved a higher standard of living than many other developing countries in the region at that time.

Yearbook 2002

Mexico. During the year, party leadership elections were held in Mexico’s most important parties. On February 24, Roberto Madrazo won with almost a majority the presidency of the PRI (Partido Revolucionário Institucional), the party that dominated Mexican politics for most of the 20th century. However, since the party lost the presidential election in 2000, it has suffered from internal divisions. According to Countryaah website, national day of Mexico is every September 15. Rumors of corruption surrounding the party’s launch of its then-presidential candidate, Francisco Labastida, led to strong reactions from the oil worker union STPRM, which threatened to strike if the deal was not investigated.

Mexico Border Countries Map

In the opposition party PRD (Partido de la Revolución Democratica), the party leadership election, won by Rosario Robles, was surrounded by allegations of cheating and corruption, further damaging the party’s reputation after similar accusations three years ago.

On May 31, a massacre of 26 Zapotec Indians was carried out in the southern state of Oaxaca following a court decision that gave the Indians justice in an ancient land dispute. The deed was labeled as the worst since December 1997, when supporters of the Zapatist guerrillas were murdered in neighboring Chiapas, and it raised the difficult issue of land reform in Mexico.

In September, the Supreme Court ruled that the original wording of the Cocoa Peace Commission’s proposal for a new law on Native American rights should be retained. The law that the Senate had already approved, and against which Native American movements had protested, was not considered to be the measure.

With 20,000 years of historical development, including the last 2 millennia in cities, the residents of present-day Mexico developed advanced civilizations such as the Olmecs, Teotihuacans, Mayans and Mexicans. They made great gains in art, science, engineering and developed complex social and political forms of organization.

Spanish conquest

When the Spanish conquerors came to Mexico in the early 16th century, it was ruled by the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma II. His kingdom was the same size as present-day Italy, and its capital was Tenochtitlan – the present Ciudad de México. The conquest was completed in 1521. In large part because of the ingenuity with which the Spanish adventurer, Hernán Cortés, understood the contradictions between the Aztecs and the people who paid tributes (taxes) to them. From then on, a process of Christianization and the Spaniards of the indigenous peoples began.

In the 17th century, the new economic structures crystallized in Nueva España. The hacienda became the basic unit of agricultural production, and mining became the central place in the colonial economy, designed to cover the insatiable thirst of the colonial power for gold and silver. The original population was exploited and fell drastically due to the hard work and the diseases. Around 1800 Mexico was one of the richest countries in the world. A country of “great wealth and unimaginable poverty”.

After nearly 300 years of colonial rule, in 1810 the struggle for independence began. It was predominantly the Creole – the descendants of the Spaniards – who led the fight. Among these are the priests Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos. The independence movement gained popular support and national outreach when natives and mestizos (the mix between Spaniards and natives) joined the ranks of the rebels, but were crushed by the forces of the colonial power. But the liberal revolution in Spainradically changed the picture. Several sectors – including the conservative clergy that feared losing their privileges – joined forces with the surviving revolutionaries and proclaimed independence. In 1821, General Iturbide proclaimed emperor, but he was soon overthrown by General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

Mexico was at this time the largest country in America with 4,600,000 km2, including the Central American provinces, but at the same time was plagued by economic, political and social problems. In 1824, a constitution was drafted, according to which Mexico was a federal republic consisting of 19 states, 4 regions, and a federal district (the capital). In 1836, Santa Anna, who had been elected president 3 years earlier, introduced a new constitution that removed all traces of federalism. The Mexican state of Texas, which housed 30,000 North American citizens, therefore asked for help and protection from the United States. Santa Anna defeated the Texans at El Alamo at the head of his army that year, but was subsequently defeated by North American forces who took him captive and first let him go for a ransom.

Mexico Country Overview

Finnish citizens do not need a visa. The passport must be valid for 6 months after the end of the trip.

It is a good idea to check that the basic vaccinations are valid for the trip.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Mexico has a tropical and warm climate. In the South, on the Pacific coasts, and on the Yucatan Peninsula, tropicalism manifests itself in humid and hot. In the north, the climate is considerably drier, with mountain peaks often covered in snow. The hottest and wettest months are from June to October. The mountains are cooler and wetter. Temperatures are on the coast all year round around 15-30 degrees. Please note that in the Mexican mountains and Mexico City, winter temperatures at night can drop as high as 5 degrees, with daytime temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 degrees.

The Mexican currency is the Mexican Peso (MXN).1 € = about 20 MXN.

Currency can be obtained from Finland by booking in advance. Check availability and course at

Many people working in service industries get poor pay, so they expect tips. In restaurants, it is good to drop 10-15%, unless the service fee is included in the invoice price. In hotels, 50-100 pesos / night are dropped for cleaners and 10-20 pesos / bag for bag carriers. Drivers will appreciate 100-200 pesos tips / day. Local guides and boat captains often drop 300-700 pesos / excursion. (1 € = approx. 21 pesos / 2.12.2019)

Electrical current
The electricity is 110 V and you also need an American adapter.

Mobile phones
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Mexico is +52.

The time difference
in Mexico has four time zones, the time difference to Mexico is -7 / -10 hours in winter and -7 / -9 hours in summer.