Mexico. During the year, party leadership elections were held in Mexico’s most important parties. On February 24, Roberto Madrazo won with almost a majority the presidency of the PRI (Partido Revolucionário Institucional), the party that dominated Mexican politics for most of the 20th century. However, since the party lost the presidential election in 2000, it has suffered from internal divisions. According to Countryaah website, national day of Mexico is every September 15. Rumors of corruption surrounding the party’s launch of its then-presidential candidate, Francisco Labastida, led to strong reactions from the oil worker union STPRM, which threatened to strike if the deal was not investigated.
In the opposition party PRD (Partido de la Revolución Democratica), the party leadership election, won by Rosario Robles, was surrounded by allegations of cheating and corruption, further damaging the party’s reputation after similar accusations three years ago.
On May 31, a massacre of 26 Zapotec Indians was carried out in the southern state of Oaxaca following a court decision that gave the Indians justice in an ancient land dispute. The deed was labeled as the worst since December 1997, when supporters of the Zapatist guerrillas were murdered in neighboring Chiapas, and it raised the difficult issue of land reform in Mexico.
In September, the Supreme Court ruled that the original wording of the Cocoa Peace Commission’s proposal for a new law on Native American rights should be retained. The law that the Senate had already approved, and against which Native American movements had protested, was not considered to be the measure.
With 20,000 years of historical development, including the last 2 millennia in cities, the residents of present-day Mexico developed advanced civilizations such as the Olmecs, Teotihuacans, Mayans and Mexicans. They made great gains in art, science, engineering and developed complex social and political forms of organization.
When the Spanish conquerors came to Mexico in the early 16th century, it was ruled by the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma II. His kingdom was the same size as present-day Italy, and its capital was Tenochtitlan – the present Ciudad de México. The conquest was completed in 1521. In large part because of the ingenuity with which the Spanish adventurer, Hernán Cortés, understood the contradictions between the Aztecs and the people who paid tributes (taxes) to them. From then on, a process of Christianization and the Spaniards of the indigenous peoples began.
In the 17th century, the new economic structures crystallized in Nueva España. The hacienda became the basic unit of agricultural production, and mining became the central place in the colonial economy, designed to cover the insatiable thirst of the colonial power for gold and silver. The original population was exploited and fell drastically due to the hard work and the diseases. Around 1800 Mexico was one of the richest countries in the world. A country of “great wealth and unimaginable poverty”.
After nearly 300 years of colonial rule, in 1810 the struggle for independence began. It was predominantly the Creole – the descendants of the Spaniards – who led the fight. Among these are the priests Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos. The independence movement gained popular support and national outreach when natives and mestizos (the mix between Spaniards and natives) joined the ranks of the rebels, but were crushed by the forces of the colonial power. But the liberal revolution in Spainradically changed the picture. Several sectors – including the conservative clergy that feared losing their privileges – joined forces with the surviving revolutionaries and proclaimed independence. In 1821, General Iturbide proclaimed emperor, but he was soon overthrown by General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
Mexico was at this time the largest country in America with 4,600,000 km2, including the Central American provinces, but at the same time was plagued by economic, political and social problems. In 1824, a constitution was drafted, according to which Mexico was a federal republic consisting of 19 states, 4 regions, and a federal district (the capital). In 1836, Santa Anna, who had been elected president 3 years earlier, introduced a new constitution that removed all traces of federalism. The Mexican state of Texas, which housed 30,000 North American citizens, therefore asked for help and protection from the United States. Santa Anna defeated the Texans at El Alamo at the head of his army that year, but was subsequently defeated by North American forces who took him captive and first let him go for a ransom.