Mongolia 2002

In 2002, Mongolia was a large landlocked country located in Central Asia with a population of approximately 2.7 million people. The economy was largely based on agriculture and mining. In terms of infrastructure, the country had relatively limited access to roads and telecommunications networks. Education was also relatively limited with approximately 84% of the population being literate. According to computerannals, Mongolia had been making progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction. The government had implemented several economic reform measures such as reducing trade tariffs and increasing foreign investment which had helped to boost the country’s economy. In addition, efforts were being made to improve health care services and access to education for all citizens. As a result of these initiatives, Mongolia had achieved a higher standard of living than many other developing countries in the region at that time.

Yearbook 2002

Mongolia. According to Countryaah website, national day of Mongolia is every December 29. The Socialist government received harsh criticism for suspected corruption. Thousands of protesters demanded in April that responsible ministers be dismissed. Among the criticisms were also concerns that the government should negotiate control of the mining company Erdenet to Russia to reduce Mongolia’s debt from the Soviet era of over SEK 90 billion. Concern was sparked by the darkening of the negotiations.

Mongolia Border Countries Map

Foreign aid donors also showed irritation over corruption and slow pace of economic reform. The US and the International Monetary Fund made less contributions as a dissatisfaction mark.

In January 1992, Parliament passed a constitutional reform presented by the government. The reform removed the People from the name of the Republic, so the country was now officially called the Republic of Mongolia. At the same time, a democratic multi-party system was introduced to replace the socialist system that had existed until then.

In the June 1992 parliamentary elections, the incumbent government won 70 out of the 76 seats of the parliament. The Democratic Coalition of the opposition only got 3-4 seats – according to. figures from the Supreme Election Commission that monitored the count. Over 90% of the population took part in the elections.

Following the defeat in June, in October 1992, the opposition transformed into the Democratic National Party of Mongolia (MDN). The Social Democrats preferred to remain independent.

Up to the privatization of 80% of state enterprises in November 1992, each resident was allocated vouchers for the purchase of shares, but the predominantly nomadic population did not understand the system and preferred to sell the vouchers on the black market.

The withdrawal of the Russian troops that began in 1987 was completed in 1992. At the same time, the incumbent President Otchirbat approached the MDN and the Social Democracy. That enabled the president in June 1993 to regain his post by 58% of the vote, and he subsequently declared that the economy would be turned in a more “western” direction.

During 1994, the conflicts between Otchirbat and the ex-communist majority in parliament worsened. Poverty and unemployment continued to rise, and according to. official estimates had 26.5% of the population not enough to survive.

In 1994, for the first time since the collapse of communism, the country experienced economic growth of 2½%. In Parliament, the disagreements between the MDN and the Social Democrats, on the one hand, and the ex-Communist majority, on the other, intensified, which in 1995 led to an agreement on changes in the electoral system. It was decided that 24 of the 76 parliamentarians should be elected by a proportional system, while the remaining 52 seats would be filled from the single-circle system.

In the economic sphere, a number of international organizations criticized the apparent slowness with which Mongolia liberalized its economy and encouraged the development of the private sector.

In the June 1996 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won a majority. The DA was an alliance between the Social Democracy and the MDN. The communist monopoly of power was thus broken. AD got 50 of the parliament’s 76 seats, while the ex-communists had to be reduced from 70 to 25 seats. In July, Parliament appointed Mendsayhany Enkhsaikhan as Prime Minister.

After the election, the government devised a reform plan for rapid transition to market economy. This process had high social costs as it increased unemployment and poverty. However, this situation was also largely due to the consequences it had had when technical and financial assistance ceased with the collapse of the Soviet Union. About 19.6% of the population now lived below the poverty line.

Mongolia Country Overview

Finnish citizen needs a visa to enter. Please check the instructions for applying for a visa.

NOTE. The passport must be valid for 6 months from arrival in the country.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Vaccinations are not actually required in Mongolia, but hepatitis A vaccination is recommended. Always check the vaccination requirements at your health center or the vaccination advice of the tourist clinic

The currency of
Mongolia is the tugrug. It cannot be changed in Finland. It is recommended to book US dollars as a travel currency, but euros are also accepted. However, dollar bills must be new and in good condition to be exchanged.

Time difference to Finland
Mongolia + 6h.

Electric current
The electric current in Mongolia is 230V.

Mobile phones
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone.

Mongolia’s climate is typical of the continent. In summer, the thermometer sometimes rises above 30 C. In winter, the temperature drops sharply to around -30 C. As there are no water bodies near Mongolia to mild the climate, the temperature drops rapidly according to the variation of the seasons. The mountainousness is reflected in strong winds in Mongolia. There is usually a wind of about 10 km / h on the ground, sometimes the wind intensifies to more than 20 km / h.

Seasons The best time to travel to Mongolia is from August to October. There is a big difference between day and night temperatures, so you should pack a thermal layer. In October, it may already be snowing in the mountains.