Nicaragua 2002

In 2002, Nicaragua was a small Central American country located between Honduras and Costa Rica. It had a population of approximately 5 million people and its economy was heavily reliant on agriculture and tourism. According to computerannals, despite being one of the poorest countries in the region, Nicaragua had an advanced infrastructure which included an extensive network of roads and railways, as well as several international airports. The standard of living in Nicaragua was lower than the global average, with a per capita GDP that was significantly lower than other countries in the region. Education levels were also below average, with approximately 85% literacy rate among adults. In terms of economic reforms, the government had implemented several measures such as reducing trade tariffs and increasing foreign investment which had helped to boost economic growth. Additionally, efforts were also being made to improve health care services and access to education for all citizens which had helped to reduce poverty rates significantly. Furthermore, despite political instability due to civil wars over the past decades, Nicaragua had been making progress in terms of democratic reform since 1996 and was seen as one of the most politically stable countries in Central America at that time.

Yearbook 2002

Nicaragua. The year was dominated by the power struggle between newly elected President Enrique Bolaños and President, former President Arnoldo Alemán, who belong to the same party. In September, Bolaños had managed to gather support from a majority of the members of the National Assembly for a decision to waive Alemán’s parliamentary immunity. According to Countryaah website, national day of Nicaragua is every September 15. Alemán is accused of corruption and embezzlement of $ 100 million during his time as president.

Nicaragua Border Countries Map

Earlier in the month, ten relatives and close relatives of Alemán had, among other things. Former Finance Minister Esteban Duquestrada, was convicted of financial irregularities involving a total of $ 10 million.

Another circumscribed case concerned the Sandinist leader and Nicaragua president during the 1980s, Daniel Ortega, who was charged with rape on his stepdaughter Zoilamérica Narváez. He was released by a court Jan. 19 for lack of evidence.

The Miskito Indians on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, which in 1987 were granted self-government in two regions by the then Sandini government, stepped up their political fight against President Bolaños during the year. They objected to his intention to allow foreign oil exploration in the area.


Having emerged from a long and bloody civil war in 1990, Nicaragua managed to avoid the risk of ungovernability only thanks to the patient mediation work carried out by President V. Barrios de Chamorro (1990 – 96) and the establishment of a fragile alliance between the less extreme right-wing parties and the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN, in power between 1979 and 1990). In September 1993Barrios de Chamorro announced the decision to replace the commander of the armed forces, General H. Ortega Saavedra, brother of the FSLN leader. Welcomed by the US administration, which reactivated the economic assistance program to Nicaragua suspended in May 1992, the announcement endangered the survival of the composite majority that since January 1993 supported the president (the 39 Sandinista deputies, the representative of a small left-wing party and the eight deputies that broke away from the Unión Nacional Opositora, UNO, a conservative coalition that had led Chamorro to the presidency in 1990); in fact, a serious split occurred within the FSLN, between those who intended to oppose the replacement of General Ortega and those who believed it necessary to find a compromise, to avoid the fall of the executive and the return to power of the far right. This latter position ended up prevailing: Ortega undertook to resign as commander-in-chief of the armed forces after the approval of a new military code that redefined the tasks and duration of this post. Thanks also to new defections within the UNO, from January 1994 a large majority was formed in the National Assembly in favor of significantly reforming the 1987 Constitution.


Manaʹgua, capital of Nicaragua; 1 million residents (2018). Managua, located on the southeastern shore of Lake Managua, lacks the true center and is spread over a large area. The city is the commercial, political, cultural and religious center of Nicaragua.

Important industrial sectors are the textile, cement and tobacco industries, as well as oil refinery, chemical industry and crafts. The city has a university, a national museum and a congress hall, which bears the name of Olof Palme. Managua has a road and rail connection with the port city of Corinto, with Granada and Leon as well as an international airport.

Managua was originally a Native American village, which in 1857 was appointed capital to settle the rivalry between Leon and Granada. The city was rebuilt after a devastating earthquake in 1931 but was hit again in December 1972 by an earthquake disaster with more than 10,000 dead and extensive destruction. Managua was a 1978-79 war scene during the civil war between the Sandinists and the Somozar regime.

Nicaragua Country Overview

Finnish citizens do not need a visa when traveling to Nicaragua if the trip lasts less than 90 days.

Visa policies and rates are subject to change without notice depending on local authorities.

Nicaragua has two seasons: the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season lasts from November to April and the rest of the time is the rainy season.

Travel Seasons
When you travel depends largely on the country you plan to travel to. The rainy season is on the Pacific side from May to November. If your trip plan is hiking or relaxing on the beach, you may want to choose the dry season.

The Nicaraguan currency is the Nicaraguan Córdoba (NIO). The US dollar is also used as a means of payment in some places.

Tips In
restaurants, you have to leave a few coins, unless the service fee is included in the invoice price. It’s a good idea to give local guides tips, as tips are usually a big part of their salary.

Electric current The electric current in
Nicaragua is 120 V. Finnish devices also need an adapter.

Mobile phones
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Nicaragua is +505.

Time difference
The time difference to Nicaragua is -8 hours in winter and -9 hours in summer.