Panama 2002

In 2002, the Republic of Panama was a tropical nation located in Central America. According to computerannals, it was bordered by Costa Rica to the west and Colombia to the east, and had a total population of around 2.7 million people. The majority of the population (around 85%) was Roman Catholic and the official language was Spanish. The capital city of Panama City was home to many government buildings, as well as popular tourist attractions such as the Panama Canal and Casco Viejo.

The economy of Panama in 2002 was largely based on services, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism. Services were by far the largest sector of GDP; by 2002 it accounted for around 75% of GDP. Agriculture also played an important role; it accounted for around 10% of GDP and included crops such as bananas, sugarcane, rice, corn and coffee. Manufacturing had become increasingly important as well; by 2002 it accounted for around 8% of GDP. Tourism had begun to develop as well; visitors were drawn to Panama’s beautiful beaches and vibrant culture. The government had invested heavily in infrastructure over recent years; by 2002 there were more than 10 thousand kilometers of roads throughout the country connecting major cities with rural areas.

Yearbook 2002

Panama. During the year, an agreement was reached with the United States on increased cooperation in the fight against drug smuggling and terrorism. According to Countryaah website, national day of Panama is every November 3. The US government has expressed fears that any of the 6,500 panama-registered cargo vessels will be used by international terrorists as a “floating bomb” against US targets. Concerns were also expressed by the opinion in Panama that the agreement opens the way for a return of US troops, which was dismissed by the Foreign Ministry.

Panama Border Countries Map

In January, protest marches were organized demanding the investigation and punishment of several members of Congress accused of corruption. Three members of the opposition party Partido Revolucionario Democratica (PRD) are accused of having been bribed for the government’s candidates to the Supreme Court through bribery.

US intervention

The first reference to the United States having the right to intervene militarily in Panama appears in the Mallarino-Bidlak Treaty, signed between Washington and Bogotá in 1846. The document entitles the United States to build a railroad over the Atlantic whose terminal on the Atlantic coast is the island Manzanillo in the Gulf of Limón. The purpose of the railways was partly to create a faster coast-to-coast connection and partly to curb Britain’s influence in the region – especially in Nicaragua.

On January 1, 1880, construction of the Panama Canal begins. It is implemented by the French Universal Society of Panama Canal, led by the Frenchman Lesseps. In 1891, a scandal broke out revealing the company’s fraud cases, and the company went bankrupt after completing 33 miles of the canal. Three years later, the New Panama Canal Company is set up to complete the project.

In mid-1902, the United States purchased the canal rights from the French company and in January 1903 they signed with a Colombian representative Hay-Herrán the agreement on the building and administration of the canal. The agreement also gives the superpower a 9.5 km wide belt across the perch as a lease for ever. From that point on, construction work continues.

But the Colombian Senate unanimously rejects the agreement, which it considers a violation of the country’s sovereignty. A revolution “now solves the problem” for the United States. In November 1903, the “revolutionaries” declared Panama independent. The United States, with its ” Marines “, is preventing Colombia from intervening, recognizing the new state after 3 days. In the United States, President Theodore Roosevelt sat in the presidential post, bringing his big stance to life for the outside world.

A new Hay-Buneau Varilla treaty is signed between the United States and Panama. It gives the superpower control over a 16 km wide belt forever and to the lakes and rivers at the ends of the canal. The former shareholder of the French canal company – Frenchman Philippe Buneau Varilla – signs as official representative of Panama. He gets paid his reward in Washington and never returns to Panama later. The 82 km long canal is officially inaugurated on August 15, 1914 and administered and led by the United States.

The channel zone provides incredible revenue for the United States. Not only in the form of the charge for using the channel, but first and foremost in terms of the time and distance saved for sea transport between the east and west coasts of the United States. The superpower’s military bases in Panama became a strategic tool to maintain control of Latin America during the Cold War. At the same time, they became centers of education and indoctrination in the “national security doctrine” – a political-military doctrine intended to guarantee dictators’ loyalty to the United States, overthrowing legal governments and imposing military dictatorships. The financial center created in Panama at the same time served as a platform for the expansion of multinational corporations and the laundering of drug dollars.

Panama Country Overview

Finnish citizen does not need a visa when traveling to Panama.

NOTE. The passport must be valid for at least 3 months after leaving the country.

Visa policies and rates are subject to change without notice depending on local authorities.

fee When departing from the country by airport, a USD 20 airport tax will be charged in cash. Some airlines include a tax on the price of an air ticket. Local authorities may change exit fees without notice.

Domestic flights
The amount of baggage that goes into the hold of a Panama domestic flight is 15 kg / customer. Hand luggage may be 5kg / customer. You will have to pay a small compensation to the airline for the extra pounds.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

The Panamanian currency is the balboa (PAB), which is pegged to the US dollar. Dollars go to pay. We recommend booking small notes ($ 20 and smaller).

The recommended amount of tip in restaurants is 10% of the bill. Taxi drivers don’t wait to tip, but the total can be rounded up and leave the difference to the driver. For guides, $ 3-5 for day trips is the recommended amount.

Electric current
The electric current is 110V. In addition, Finnish devices need an adapter.

Mobile phones
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. Panama’s area code is +507.

Time difference
The time difference to Panama is -7 hours in winter and -8 hours in summer.