According to citypopulationreview, 10 km east of Aksai is the village of Starocherkasskaya (the former city of Cherkassk). This is one of the oldest settlements in the Rostov region, it was supposedly founded in 1570 by the Cossacks-Cossacks and named Cherkassk. At the beginning of the 19th century, when the capital of the Cossacks was moved to Novocherkassk, the city of Cherkassk was renamed Starocherkassk, and by the end of the 19th century it lost its city status. Many historical events took place in the village – from here in 1637 the Cossack Azov campaign began, from here in 1667 Stepan Razin led the Cossacks to the Volga, and in 1708 the leader of the Peasant War Kondraty Bulavin was killed here. Today, the village of Starocherkasskaya is a historical and architectural museum reserve – ancient Cossack houses of the 17th-18th centuries, palaces-fortresses of Cossack chieftains and religious buildings have been preserved here, in general – more than 20 objects and more than 50,000 exhibits.
The historical center of the village is the legendary square Maidan. Here are located ancient cannons, the yoke of the Azov city scales and the main attraction of the village – Ensemble of the Military Resurrection Cathedral. The cathedral was erected in the period from 1706 to 1719 by Moscow masters in the Ukrainian baroque style, in the middle of the 18th century a bell tower was installed here. The construction of the cathedral took place under Peter I and his personal participation. It has preserved a unique six-tier carved iconostasis with 125 icons of the 18th century, under the choirs of the cathedral you can see a number of pictorial compositions on the subjects of the Old and New Testaments, and in the altar compositions – a canvas larger than 50 square meters. m. In the gallery of the cathedral are stored the remains of the military ataman Kornily Yakovlev, as well as the chain of Stepan Razin, with which he was chained in 1671, while in the cathedral. In addition, the Ataman Compound memorial complex is interesting in the village .. The local old house belonged to the trading Cossacks Zhuchenkov, this is the only ataman estate that has survived in the south of Russia. The estate hosts themed exhibitions.
In Starocherkasskaya, the house where Kondraty Bulavin died, the Peter and Paul Church of the middle of the 18th century, in which Ataman Platov was baptized, the Transfiguration Church (1740) with a cemetery at the Ratnoy tract, from where the Cossacks went on campaigns and where atamans of the 17th-18th centuries were buried, were also preserved. At 5 km from the village, on the Vasilyevsky hillocks, the ramparts and ditches of the earthen Annenskaya fortress (1730) are visible. Be sure to visit the Monastic tract, which is located 7 km from Starocherkasskaya. In 1974, a memorial complex of mass graves was erected on its territory in memory of the soldiers who died during the Azov siege during the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars. Novocherkassk is located 40 km northeast of Rostov-on-Don. It was here that in 1805 the capital of the Don Cossacks was moved. Today there are about 200 monuments of history and architecture in the city. At the entrance to Novocherkassk there are two triumphal arches erected in honor of the participation of the Don Cossacks in the Patriotic War of 1812. The arches are decorated with a poetic inscription in honor of Emperor Alexander I. Cathedral Square is the center of the cityand Azovskaya Square. The Military Ascension Cathedral rises on Cathedral Square. It can be seen from any corner of Novocherkassk, because the height of the cathedral reaches 75 m. This is the third largest Russian cathedral after the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg and the main temple of the Don Cossacks. The military Ascension Cathedral was built in the period from 1805 to 1905 in the neo-Byzantine style, it was destroyed twice, its current version is the third. At the base of the cathedral there is a temple-tomb – the Lower Intercession Church, which was built from the remains of the former Ascension Cathedral, half gone underground. Here are the burial places of prominent military and church figures of the Don – the Reverend Archbishop of the Don and Novocherkassk John, Ataman Matvey Ivanovich Platov, heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812 Vasily Vasilyevich Orlov-Denisov and Pyotr Yakovlevich Baklanov.
The Ascension Cathedral is decorated with sacred inscriptions and wall paintings depicting episodes of Don history. Next to the cathedral stands a bronze a monument to Yermak, the Don ataman, the conqueror of Siberia, and a monument to General Ya.P. Baklanov, hero of the Caucasian War. In the center of Azovskaya Square stands Michael the Archangel Church, which was built in 1870, and from where the Cossack army went to war with Napoleon. In the Platovsky Square of Novocherkassk, a monument was erected to the founder of the city, Ataman M.I. Platov. Behind it is the Ataman Palace, which was the official residence of the Don chieftains, as well as the place of stay for members of the imperial family during their trips to the Don. Now the palace building has been transferred to the Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks. On the second floor there is a memorial exposition that tells about the system of ataman power and the role of the personalities of the Don chieftains in the history of the Don army.
The Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks was opened in 1899. He tells about the history and nature of the Don region. The museum fund has 120,000 items. The main building of the museum exhibits collections of military Cossack Kleinods, military and regimental banners of the 18th-19th centuries, Cossack military and household costumes of the 19th-20th centuries, premium, granted weapons, as well as edged and firearms, letters of commendation, documents of the military office and village administrations., an extensive collection of paintings of the 18th-20th centuries, a collection of books and newspapers. The pride of the museum is the world’s only collection of Cossack banners, bunchuks, regimental standards of the Don Cossacks of the 18th-20th centuries. In addition to Cossack rarities, the museum exhibits petrified remains of animals and plants, tools of primitive man, objects of Scythian-Sarmatian culture, the Greek colony of Tanais and the Tatar city of Azaka. The Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks, in addition to the Ataman Palace, has several more branches – house-museum of M.B. Grekov, where the famous battle painter lived and worked, the memorial house-museum of I.I. Krylov, a landscape painter who bequeathed about 1000 of his paintings to the city, and the museum of the Novocherkassk poet V.V. Kalmykov. From the museums of Novocherkassk, one can also single out the Museum of the History of the Don Viticulture with collections on the history of winemaking from ancient times to the present day.