In 2002, the Republic of Sudan was located in Northeast Africa and had a population of approximately 37 million people. The country was predominantly Muslim and Arabic-speaking and its economy was largely driven by oil production.
According to computerannals, the government of Sudan was led by President Omar al-Bashir, who had been in power since 1989. At this time, the country was in the midst of an ongoing civil war between the north and south. This conflict had caused displacement for millions of people and caused a severe humanitarian crisis within the country.
In 2002, the government focused on rebuilding the country after years of conflict by investing in infrastructure projects such as roads and bridges, as well as providing access to healthcare services for all citizens. It also worked towards strengthening its democracy through various reforms aimed at improving human rights and increasing transparency in government institutions.
In addition, it worked towards improving inter-regional relations with other African countries by increasing trade ties and strengthening regional cooperation initiatives such as the African Union (AU). It also made progress towards becoming a more inclusive society with efforts to improve gender equality and reduce poverty levels among certain groups in society.
According to Countryaah website, national day of Sudan is every January 1. Sudan was put under strong foreign pressure to end almost two decades of civil war. The government and the SPLM guerrilla agreed in January on a ceasefire in the Nuba Mountains in central Sudan. An international monitoring group was sent to the area.
In June, peace negotiations began in Kenya, which after five weeks culminated in an agreement in principle on two of the central issues of the conflict. The government agreed that Islamic law should apply only in the north and that the residents of the south should be given a referendum on possible independence after six years of peace.
A new round of negotiations began in August, but both sides maintained a high level of preparedness for war. After a few weeks the conversations became stranded since the guerrilla had taken a strategically important place. For a time, fierce fighting was fought until the parties agreed on a ceasefire on October 16, the first of the entire conflict. Despite some screen savers, peace talks continued and the ceasefire was extended to March 31, 2003.
In June 1989, General Bashir overthrew the president and made the government responsible for the country’s political-economic crisis. Bashir disbanded the political parties, formed a 15-member military junta and promised to end the war.
Ten months after the coup, other officers conducted a coup attempt. At the same time, attempts by Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Zaires and the United States failed to mediate in the country’s protracted internal conflict. The various peace initiatives failed, while government troops and paramilitary Arab groups funded by Bashir hit the people of the south. The African people in the South were frequently forced to leave their lands due to attacks by these military units.
On February 4, 1991, the government introduced a federative structure in the country. Sudan was divided into 9 states, each administered by a governor and a ministerial council. Already on January 31, General Omar Bashir’s government had signed a new criminal law based on Islamic Sharia – though only in the northern part of the country where Islam is the dominant religion.
In the first months of 1992, the United States Office for Disaster Support condemned the systematic extermination of Nubian descent as well as the displacement of people against desert areas. These later searched for Khartoum, where they were collected in camps without drinking water or latrines.
In March, with the support of Ethiopia, Iran and Libya, the government began a military offensive against the People’s Liberation Army (FB), taking on the city of Bhor in the south, which was a symbol of the uprising.
Despite its military offensive, the government lost ever more control over the interior of the country. In the south operated the People’s Liberation Army, led by John Garang, and in the north the Nasir rebel group led by Riek Mashar, who had broken out of the People’s Liberation Army. The unstable situation led the government to strike hard against the opposition and in the countryside against the villages that supported the guerrillas.
In May 1992, with the support of the Nigerian President, negotiations began in Abuja, Nigeria. They culminated in June with a general and ambiguous communication.
In January 1993, disagreements at the head of the government led to a government transformation aimed at adapting its policy to the objectives set by the IMF and the World Bank. Nevertheless, both financial institutions considered the steps insufficient, and interest on the country’s foreign debt remained unpaid. As a consequence, in April abroad the funding for a number of infrastructure projects ceased. Daily military spending ran up to $ 2 million during this period.
Sudan Country Overview
Finnish citizens need a visa to Sudan.
There is no Sudanese diplomatic mission in Finland, but if necessary, we will assist in obtaining a visa. The nearest embassy in Sudan is in Oslo.
The passport must be valid for six months after the end of the trip and must not contain any markings indicating a visit to Israel – including Egyptian and Jordanian exit stamps from anti-Israel border posts. It is also a good idea to have at least four blank pages in your passport for stamps and visas.
- According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, SD stands for Sudan.
Comprehensive travel insurance is required. Every person participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in case of illness or other similar need. The insurance should also have cancellation cover. The insurance conditions and the validity of the insurance should be clarified before the trip.
Currency: The official currency of Sudan is the Sudanese Pound. International credit cards are not accepted. All payments must be made in cash. The easiest way is to exchange US dollars, which are also paid for in hotels, for example. Money can be exchanged at banks and hotels.
Check that your basic vaccinations are valid (tetanus, polio and diphtheria). Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are recommended for the trip. Malaria prevention medication is recommended in some areas. A certificate of yellow fever vaccination is required for all tourists arriving from countries where yellow fever occurs. The requirement also applies to a stopover of more than 12 hours. ashore. A certificate may also be required for tourists leaving the country. Based on the risk assessment, vaccine protection against typhoid, meningococcal and seasonal influenza may be considered. In addition, protection against mosquitoes is important. Please always check the vaccination requirements at your health center or the vaccination advice of the tourist clinic
Sudan’s climate is hot and dry. The northern part of Sudan, where the capital Khartoum is located, is a dry Sahara desert, and temperatures can rise above 45 ° C in summer. In the evenings and at night the temperature drops greatly. The south is tropical humid. Sandstorms often occur. The temperature differences are quite small locally and seasonally. During the summer, Sudan has a rainy season when floods can impede movement in the countryside.
Usually service fees are included in the price of the invoice. Guides and drivers are waiting for tips, especially if you’ve been on a longer trip. In this case, 5-10 USD tip / person is good.
Sudan’s time difference to Finland is -1 hour in summer. Winter is the same time in Sudan.
current The electrical current in Sudan is 220 V. An adapter is required for devices used in Finnish sockets.
Check with your operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Sudan is +249.