Sudan 2002

Yearbook 2002

According to Countryaah website, national day of Sudan is every January 1. Sudan was put under strong foreign pressure to end almost two decades of civil war. The government and the SPLM guerrilla agreed in January on a ceasefire in the Nuba Mountains in central Sudan. An international monitoring group was sent to the area.

Sudan Border Countries Map

In June, peace negotiations began in Kenya, which after five weeks culminated in an agreement in principle on two of the central issues of the conflict. The government agreed that Islamic law should apply only in the north and that the residents of the south should be given a referendum on possible independence after six years of peace.

A new round of negotiations began in August, but both sides maintained a high level of preparedness for war. After a few weeks the conversations became stranded since the guerrilla had taken a strategically important place. For a time, fierce fighting was fought until the parties agreed on a ceasefire on October 16, the first of the entire conflict. Despite some screen savers, peace talks continued and the ceasefire was extended to March 31, 2003.

In June 1989, General Bashir overthrew the president and made the government responsible for the country’s political-economic crisis. Bashir disbanded the political parties, formed a 15-member military junta and promised to end the war.

Ten months after the coup, other officers conducted a coup attempt. At the same time, attempts by Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Zaires and the United States failed to mediate in the country’s protracted internal conflict. The various peace initiatives failed, while government troops and paramilitary Arab groups funded by Bashir hit the people of the south. The African people in the South were frequently forced to leave their lands due to attacks by these military units.

On February 4, 1991, the government introduced a federative structure in the country. Sudan was divided into 9 states, each administered by a governor and a ministerial council. Already on January 31, General Omar Bashir’s government had signed a new criminal law based on Islamic Sharia – though only in the northern part of the country where Islam is the dominant religion.

In the first months of 1992, the United States Office for Disaster Support condemned the systematic extermination of Nubian descent as well as the displacement of people against desert areas. These later searched for Khartoum, where they were collected in camps without drinking water or latrines.

In March, with the support of Ethiopia, Iran and Libya, the government began a military offensive against the People’s Liberation Army (FB), taking on the city of Bhor in the south, which was a symbol of the uprising.

Despite its military offensive, the government lost ever more control over the interior of the country. In the south operated the People’s Liberation Army, led by John Garang, and in the north the Nasir rebel group led by Riek Mashar, who had broken out of the People’s Liberation Army. The unstable situation led the government to strike hard against the opposition and in the countryside against the villages that supported the guerrillas.

In May 1992, with the support of the Nigerian President, negotiations began in Abuja, Nigeria. They culminated in June with a general and ambiguous communication.

In January 1993, disagreements at the head of the government led to a government transformation aimed at adapting its policy to the objectives set by the IMF and the World Bank. Nevertheless, both financial institutions considered the steps insufficient, and interest on the country’s foreign debt remained unpaid. As a consequence, in April abroad the funding for a number of infrastructure projects ceased. Daily military spending ran up to $ 2 million during this period.