The History of Diving

There are three types of diving: free, autonomous and dependent on semi-autonomous or (umbilical). The free diving or apnea is the mode in which the diver does not use underwater breathing equipment. In scuba diving the diver is aided by equipment that he carries, that allow him to breathe underwater. Have in diving, the air supply is not taken by the diver, the food is made from the surface through an air compressor and a hose.

The dependent diving is not practiced by amateur divers or sportsmen, since, as there is no limitation for the permanence of man under water, easily the diving decompression limits do not end up being exceeded, demanding so many shutdowns for decompression.

Furthermore, an interruption in the supply of air to the diver can be fatal, depending on the depth and time which is diving. For beginners it is recommended the snorkeling. With only twelve years of age can begin with scuba diving.

The dependent diving is widely used by professionals, especially those working on oil rigs and in construction.

The Italian priest Giovanni Alfonso Borelli was the first man to dive with security and comfort. Your successful walk underwater, in 1679, featured a waterproof suit made of leather and tallow greased. He was, grossly, reduce the hardships caused by the cold, one of the major headaches of divers. Before him, however, the Greek historian Herodotus reported that the Emperor Xerxes had organized expeditions to seek, in the depths of the ocean, the sunken treasure of the Persians.

Aristotle, the philosopher of ancient Greece notable, chronicled the fall of Alexander the great, a primitive Diving Bell to observe marine life.

In the year of 1899, the French Besnoit Rouquayrol patented the first autonomous breathing apparatus. But there was a high pressure valve. Without it, there was no way to balance the high pressures present in the bottom of the sea. The solution was found by French Jacques-Yves Cousteauin 1943. At the time, he lived in southern France, practicing spearfishing to stay. Along with engineer Emile Gagnham, who designed a high pressure valve, Cousteau has perfected the Rouquayrol apparatus, named aqualung.

Snorkeling basically consists in the techniques for a descent without the aid of underwater breathing equipment ensuring. The diver depends exclusively on your lung capacity, physical preparation and especially emotional control.

There are several types of Snorkeling or not competitive, among them has been the Diving contemplative, as the name says, to contemplate the aquatic environment has been the constant Ballast diving where the diver descends to a certain depth using a weight belt, but the same can’t use guide cable, constant weight belt without fins, which is worth the same rules for the previous one except that the use of fins , Free immersion is the most natural possible, modalide where the diver uses just one cable down the greatest depth possible, and return.

It also has the variable Ballast, where the diver descends with the help of controlled ballast (sled) connected to the cable. After reaching the desired depth, the diver leaves the ballast and returns to the surface using the Guide cable or just using the fins and finally the No limits, this is the mode of great profundistas. Is derived from the variable ballast, but the difference is in the way of return to the surface. The diver can use a balloon or inflatable vest, or other mechanical means to climb as quickly as possible, due to the great depth reached.

In Brazil we have references worldwide free diving, such as Karoline M Meyer, Ricardo da Gama Bahia, Carolina Schrappe, among many others.

The world record for depth is-225 metres the diver Stig Aavall SEVERINSEN on 6/16/2007 date. Scuba diving, the sport allows the diver to stay longer underwater with the aid of breathing equipment. Diving autonomo can be divided basically into: scuba and diving coach (or descomprensivo).

The manuals of several certifiers of recreational diving, pointed out the depth limit for this type of dive, 40 meters deep.

From there, the effects of narcosis by nitrogen rises, making it risky to the diving conducted simply with compressed air (consisting of approximately 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent nitrogen). For other types of dip flee recreational or sporting, gas mixtures are used, for example, the “trimix”, where they increase the percentages of helium gas.

Dives considered “deep” are extremely risky and are not allowed for recreational divers.

The record in diving autonomo belongs to South African Technical Diver Nuno Gomes who came down-318.25 meters deep. For both, the diver must undergo special courses, where dive tables are studied in detail, emergency procedures are presented and the equipment also are special.

Several other types of diving have sprung up in recent years.

Recreational dives where you use the “Nitrox”, a mixture of oxygen-enriched, also require a diver’s specific knowledge, and the right to undergo the courses offered by the various global certification.The Nitrox mixes (also known as EAN-Enriched Air Nitrox) more common are EAN32 – 32% 68% nitrogen and oxygen – and EAN36 – 36% oxygen and 64% of nitrogen.

The cave diving, Caving and diving techniques, is one of the most fascinating and exciting types of this practice, but also and at the same rate, one of the most dangerous, requiring of its practitioners knowledge specific to the practice (since the proper way to hit your legs in swimming, even the knowledge of cables and reels, in addition to the use of equipment in redundancy-twice).

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