Uzbekistan in 2002 was a presidential republic with Islam Karimov as its Head of State. It was composed of twelve provinces and the population of Uzbekistan at that time was approximately 25 million people and its official language was Uzbek. The country had a presidential system of government with Islam Karimov as its President since 1991. The economy of Uzbekistan was largely based on agriculture, mining and industry but it also had a growing services sector. Education was free for all citizens up to secondary school level and the literacy rate was estimated to be around 98%. Healthcare services were provided by the government at no cost for all citizens but many suffered from diseases such as malaria due to poor sanitation practices and lack of access to clean water sources. In 2002, Uzbekistan had made some progress in terms of economic development but still had high levels of poverty compared to other countries in Central Asia. According to computerannals, the country also had a very open foreign policy, which saw it joining many international organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Commonwealth of Independent States, while maintaining strong relations with both Western and non-Western countries.
Uzbekistan. According to Countryaah website, national day of Uzbekistan is every September 1. Uzbekistan continued its cooperation with the United States in the fight against terrorism, which began after September 11 the year before. About 1,500 US soldiers were stationed at Khanabad military base in southern Uzbekistan. At the beginning of the year, the head of US military operations in Afghanistan visited Uzbekistan for talks with President Islam Karimov. It was decided to have regular US-Uzbek security consultations on a joint commission with military experts.
In March, the government recognized for the first time an independent Uzbek human rights organization, the Independent Human Rights Society, which had applied for registration since 1997. According to the company’s leadership, international pressure contributed to the recognition. One event that looked like a backdrop was that President Karimov visited the United States that month, including the US. with the intention of expanding US aid. Karimov promised to fulfill the American conditions for further democratic and economic reform.
However, Uzbekistan opposition politicians expressed doubts about Karimov’s willingness to live up to his promises. Human Rights Watch accused the regime of abusive zeal to strike down the forbidden Islamic movement Hezb ut-Tahrir. In May, while the regime abolished the press censorship, it retained the possibility of withdrawing magazines’ publishing permits.
In August, a street protest was allowed which lasted one day, but a week later the authorities turned to another demonstration. Members of the Russian minority, who tried to protest against ethnic discrimination, stated that they had been forced into treatment at a psychiatric clinic. At the end of the year, a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses was sentenced to three years of conditional imprisonment accused of denouncing “religious hatred.” The alleged crime consisted in distribution of printed matter. Uzbekistan is Muslim dominated.
Uzbekistan is in the temperate climatic zone. Depending on the region, there is a humid continental climate, a temperate steppe climate or a temperate desert climate. The summers are usually hot and cloudless, the winters changeable and cold.
The annual precipitation is – depending on the region – only 50-400 mm, but increases in the mountains to over 1000 mm annually. The temperatures fluctuate strongly both year and time of day.
UZBEKISTAN – COUNTRY OF BLUE DOLLS ON THE SILK ROAD
Merchants and soldiers in the steppes of Eurasia
The grasslands, hot deserts, and icy mountain slopes of Central Asia have been an open home for nomads for millennia. The nomadic way of life has made it possible to move and transport herds of animals to where water and pastures have been found at any given time. The nomadic groups were loose alliances that rarely formed true long-lived kingdoms. It is hard to believe that one of the most successful trade routes in the world, the fabulous Silk Road, was born and flourished for hundreds of years under these harsh conditions. Already in the early years of our era, Chinese Han emperors traded in “flying horses” in the Fergana Valley in what is now Uzbekistan in exchange for the silk they sold to Rome. The second heyday of Silk Road began in the 6th century during the reign of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. For the peoples of Central Asia, the trade route meant lucrative brokerage and transportation, and thus increasing prosperity. The success of the Silk Road ended with the growth of maritime trade and the relocation of trade to the south, to Guangzhou.
Not only the merchants, but also one army after another crossed the plain connecting Europe and Asia and the difficult mountain ranges. The Persians and Alexander the Great came from the west, the Huns and the Genghis Khan with their Mongol armies from the east. The territory of present-day Uzbekistan first belonged to the Persian Empire of Sogdiana and later as a legacy of Alexander the Great to Greek-born Seleucids. Islam was planted in the area by Turkish conquerors as an oasis from an oasis by the mid-7th century. The avalanche of Mongols across a vast continent in the 13th century left behind destroyed cities, such as Samarkand and Bukhara, and millions of dead people. Venetian merchant Marco Polo stayed in the rabbit court for 17 years. From his memoirs we are given a vivid picture of the creators of the greatest empire in the world,
Genghis Khan divided the giant kingdom among his four sons. The territory of Uzbekistan was given to Chagatai. In the 14th century, his descendant Timur Lenk established a great power in the steppes of Central Asia, where the customs of the nomads merged with the Islamic traditions they had adopted from their defeated peoples. The kingdom of Timur Lenk (also: Tamerlane) extended to Baghdad, Damascus, India, and western Russia. From the capital, Samarkand, a “center of the world” and a “threshold of paradise” were built by inviting skilled artisans from all over Asia to erect Quranic schools (Madrasa) and mosques. Timur Lenk also attracted scholars, poets, and other artists to shelter the ruler’s wings. During the time of his descendants, the Timurids, the kingdom was again fragmented and had practically disappeared by the turn of the 16th century. One of the princes, Baburin, managed to escape to India, where he became the ancestor of mighty Mughals.
Uzbekistan Country Overview
When traveling to Uzbekistan, a Finnish citizen does not need a visa.
- According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG, SKD stands for Uzbekistan.
Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.
Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.
Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.
It is a good idea to check that the basic vaccinations are valid for the trip. Check vaccination requirements at your health center or
Uzbekistan’s climate is warm and dry in most parts of the country. Rainfall is low throughout the year. Mountain areas are relatively colder than the rest of the country. In winter, frosts average around -23 degrees and in summer the air may warm to 40 degrees.
The best time to travel is spring or fall.
Currency: Uzbekistani Som (UZS). Currency can be obtained from Finland by booking in advance. Check availability and course https://www.forex.fi/.
The time difference between Uzbekistan and Finland is +3 hours in winter and +2 hours in summer.
220 V, 50Hz. An adapter is not required for Finnish devices.
Check with your network operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Uzbekistan is +998.
We stay in safe areas on our travels, but pickpocketing is possible, especially in cities, and moving around at night in certain areas can be unsafe. However, general caution within common sense is desirable throughout the journey. Current security warnings for all countries can be found on the Ministry for Foreign Affairs’ website
Food and drink
Uzbekistan’s food culture is strongly reflected in the country’s grain production. There are a lot of noodles and lamb in the food. The country’s national dish is pilaf, which consists of rice cooked in broth, to which vegetables, meat, fish or nuts are added, as well as a variety of spices. Food is often served from a shared dish. In Uzbekistan, a lot of green tea is drunk and alcohols are consumed with local wines.
It is recommended to pay attention to the hygiene of food and beverages to avoid stomach diseases and food poisoning. It is recommended to use water only in bottles. If there is tap water, then you should boil it first.
Prepare carefully and pack lightly
Each pound of less luggage reduces the fuel consumption of the vehicle. For more passengers, this can have a significant impact. For personal hygiene, you should pack travel sizes or sample packs that not only save space but also weight. For these, however, it is a good idea to consider the amount of waste that may be generated. Depending on the destination, it is also important to take into account the local water situation – if necessary, it is advisable to favor, for example, hair products that do not require rinsing.
Travel documents and electronic reading save space and weight. For charging electronic devices, backup power sources based on a solar cell, for example, are available. For example, footwear often takes up a lot of space in a suitcase and easily accumulates the weight of the bag. Think about what equipment you really need for the trip and leave the extra items at home.