Zambia 2002

Zambia in 2002 was a sovereign state with Levy Mwanawasa as its President. It was located in Southern Africa and the population of Zambia at that time was approximately 10 million people and its official language was English. The country had a republican system of government with an elected president as its head since 1991. The economy of Zambia relied mostly on copper exports, but it also had a large industrial sector. Education was free for all citizens up to secondary school level and the literacy rate was estimated to be around 65%. Healthcare services were provided by the government at no cost for all citizens but many suffered from diseases such as malaria due to poor sanitation practices and lack of access to clean water sources. In 2002, Zambia had made some progress in terms of economic development but still had high levels of poverty compared to other countries in Southern Africa. According to computerannals, the country also had a very open foreign policy, which saw it joining many international organizations such as the African Union and United Nations, while maintaining strong relations with both Western and non-Western countries.

Yearbook 2002

Zambia. According to Countryaah website, national day of Zambia is every October 24. Three out of ten losing candidates protested at the Supreme Court in January against the outcome of the December 200 presidential elections.

The newly elected President Levy Mwanawasa declared that he would obviously resign if HD found him to be declared a winner on the wrong grounds. Until then, he wished to purge himself of the suspicions of being only a puppet of former President Frederick Chiluba. A number of ministers and senior officials appointed by Chiluba were dismissed or forced to resign following corruption charges. Chiluba was deprived of a number of material benefits and, after a few months of power measurement, left the post of chairman of the ruling party MMD (Movement for Multiparty Democracy) to Mwanawasa.

Zambia had significant financial problems. The budget deficit for 2001 turned out to have risen due to large expenses for the election campaign and unforeseen salary increases for public employees. The crisis was exacerbated by the Anglo-American mining company’s decision to discontinue operations at the large new copper field Konkola, which threatened 11,000 jobs.

The economic crisis was also exacerbated by the severe drought affecting Zambia and other southern African countries. About 2.5 million Zambians were threatened by starvation. The government received strong criticism from both the opposition and abroad for its refusal to accept US donations of genetically modified maize. The government feared that the “poisoned” crop would come into its own production and thus jeopardize grain exports to the EU.

Zambia Border Countries Map


After an absence, Kaunda took over again in 1995 as party leader of UNIP, but a law from 1996 prevented him from running for president. At the same time, prominent UNIP members were arrested, accused of leading an armed resistance group, and several were indicted for treason. These events led to several Western aid providers expressing concern over the development of democracy in Zambia, and Norway, among others, decided to withhold new aid. A coup attempt in 1997 was turned down. In 1997, Kaunda was wounded in an attempted assault, after which he was arrested for a period, accused of being behind the coup attempt. In 1999, Kaunda was deprived of his citizenship, and was subjected to a new attack attempt. Chiluba gained strong power, also within the party, with growing opposition from excluded members of the MMD in the Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD). MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa won the election in 2001, while MMD lost the majority in the National Assembly. The president launched a campaign against corruption, which also led to Chiluba being accused and arrested in 2003. At the 2006 parliamentary and presidential elections, MDM got 72 representatives, against 46 to the largest opposition party, the Patriotic Front (PF), started in 2001 by Michael Sata., a breaker from MDM. In the presidential election, Mwanawasa from MMD was re-elected with 43 percent of the vote, against Sata’s 29.4 percent. Sata was supported by former MDM leader and President Chiluba. In 2007, Chilaba and four advisers were convicted by the British Supreme Court for conspiracy to rob the Zambian state. Two years later, he was acquitted of the corruption charges in the Zambian judiciary.

Parallel to the introduction of free party formation in 1990, self-government demands were raised from the old Barotse Kingdom. Members of the Lozi people have, through the Barotse Patriotic Front, threatened to break out of Zambia and form their own state, more or less identical to the old Barot country. Ethnicity has become an element of Zambian politics to a greater extent than ever since independence.

Zambia Country Overview

Finnish citizen needs a visa to Zambia. It costs $ 50. If you are visiting Zambia from a neighboring country and staying there, you will need a multiple entry visa to Zambia, which costs USD 80. If you want to make a day trip to Zambia, a day visa costs 20 USD. Visas are obtained at the border for a fee. Note! Visa rates are subject to change without notice from local authorities.

KAZA UNIVISA costs USD 50 per person and allows multiple entries in Zambia and Zimbabwe. The visa is also valid if you make a day trip from Zambia or Zimbabwe to Botswana. In this case, the border crossing must take place through the Kazungula border crossing point and an overnight stay in Botswana is not allowed.
When traveling with a Finnish passport, Kaza Univisan is available in Zambia and Zimbabwe on arrival (airports: Lusaka, Livingstone, Harare, Victoria Falls / border crossing points: Victoria Falls, Kazungula). An e-visa is also available, but problems have been identified with the operation of visa sites. The visa is valid for 30 days.
Note. Kaza Univisa is not always available at border crossing points, in which case border guards require a country-specific visa (single or multiple entry).

If the trip to Zambia passes through South Africa or Botswana Please note that in addition to the passport, minor children must present an original birth certificate in English (extract from the population information system obtained from the local register office).

A minor child traveling without one or both guardians must present the consent of the absent guardian before the flights and possibly also in South Africa. If the minor has only one legal guardian, a court decision on sole custody or the death certificate of the other guardian must be presented.

We will not be held responsible if access is denied due to missing travel documents.

Every person participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Currency: Zambian Kwacha (ZMK). In 2013, banknotes and coins were renewed and the older currency is no longer in use. In several places you can also pay in US dollars. Check the daily exchange rate at

It is a good idea to give 10% tips at restaurants, unless the service fee is included in the invoice price. Safari guides and drivers are usually left with 5-10USD / day.

Departure fees / airport taxes An airport tax of 52.8 ZMW (approx. USD 10) is payable on departure on an international flight. Payment is made in cash in local currency.

Check that your basic vaccinations are valid (tetanus, polio and diphtheria). Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are recommended for the trip. We also recommend antimalarial medication in Zambia. Please always check the vaccination requirements at your health center or the vaccination advice of the tourist clinic

If you arrive in Zambia from the yellow fever area, you must present an international vaccination card for yellow fever vaccination. According to the World Health Organization, a single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection against yellow fever. However, to avoid possible ambiguity, we recommend that a medical certificate in English be sought for a yellow fever vaccination certificate that is more than 10 years old, stating that vaccination provides lifelong protection.

When traveling to Zambia from a destination outside the yellow fever area, no vaccination certificate is required. However, there may be unexpected changes in flight routes that may also affect vaccination requirements. Due to such situations, we recommend that you always carry a valid vaccination certificate with you.

We will not be held responsible if access is denied due to a missing vaccination certificate.

Zambia’s climate is tropical and the country has three different seasons. Rainfall is highest between December and March. In the highest highlands above a kilometer, in the dry season there is sometimes even frost at night. During hot seasons, the temperature can rise up to 35 degrees.

Seasons You can travel to the country all year round, but the best time is from May to September when there is a dry season. Then the air temperature is pleasant and there is no congestion in the nature parks. It is also good to note that many nature parks will be closed during the rainy season.

The time difference in
Zambia is the same in winter as in Finland. In summer, the time difference to Finland is -1 hour.

current The electrical current is 220 V. A British adapter is required for devices used in Finnish sockets.

Mobile phones
Check the availability of your mobile phone with your operator. Zambia area code is +260.

Food and drink
Zambian food is quite simple and is based a lot on harvest season vegetables. The food is also not very spicy, the basic spices are salt and pepper. Meals are usually based on nshima, a thick corn porridge that is eaten daily by the country‚Äôs 15 million people. It is important that every manufacturer knows how to cook just the right kind of porridge. A ball is rotated from the porridge by hand, with an opening pressed with a thumb for the side dish to be served with the meal. The side dish is usually a relice made from beans and vegetables. If meat is served, then often it is chicken. More protein is obtained from dried fish and larvae, which are popular with locals. These are usually enjoyed with traditional corn porridge or in casseroles and as a snack with tomato and onion. Zambia’s tap water is not potable. All water and beverages must be industrially bottled. Salads and vegetables should also be rinsed with bottled water. Heated or tablet-purified water can be drunk.

We stay in safe areas during our trip, but general caution within common sense is desirable throughout the trip.

Outdoor suits are prohibited in Zambia.

Avoid taking pictures of government buildings, bridges, train stations, and other places that local authorities believe are security risks.