Croatia, officially known as the Republic of Croatia, is located in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, Montenegro to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.



Croatia features a diverse climate influenced by its geographical diversity. Coastal regions experience a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Inland areas have a continental climate, characterized by hot summers and cold winters, while the mountainous regions have an alpine climate with significant snowfall.


Croatia’s varied geography supports a rich diversity of fauna. The country is home to numerous species of mammals, including brown bears, wolves, lynxes, and wildcats. Birdwatchers flock to Croatia to observe over 300 species of birds, including the griffon vulture and golden eagle.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Croatia is the Sava, which flows through Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. Other major rivers include the Drava, Danube, and Una rivers, which play important roles in irrigation, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation.

Highest Mountains

Croatia is known for its rugged mountain ranges, the most prominent of which is the Dinaric Alps. The highest peak in Croatia is Dinara, standing at an elevation of 1,831 meters (6,007 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Velebit, Biokovo, and Učka.



Croatia has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic era. The region was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes before being conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC.

Medieval Period

During the medieval period, Croatia became a powerful kingdom under the rule of the House of Trpimirović. In 1102, Croatia entered into a personal union with Hungary, leading to centuries of Hungarian influence over Croatian affairs.

Habsburg Rule

In the 16th century, Croatia came under Habsburg rule as part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Habsburgs ruled Croatia until the 20th century, with brief periods of Ottoman and Venetian occupation.

Modern Age

Croatia experienced significant political upheaval during the 20th century, including the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the creation of Yugoslavia, and ultimately, the Croatian War of Independence in the early 1990s. Croatia declared independence in 1991 and has since emerged as a sovereign nation, joining the European Union in 2013.


Croatia has a population of approximately 4 million people, with a mix of ethnic groups, including Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks, and others. The majority of the population identifies as Roman Catholic, although there are significant Orthodox Christian and Muslim minorities.

Administrative Divisions

Croatia is divided into 20 counties (županije) and the capital city of Zagreb, which has special administrative status. The counties are further subdivided into municipalities and cities, each with its own local government.

  1. Zagreb County
  2. Krapina-Zagorje County
  3. Sisak-Moslavina County
  4. Karlovac County
  5. Varaždin County
  6. Koprivnica-Križevci County
  7. Bjelovar-Bilogora County
  8. Primorje-Gorski Kotar County
  9. Lika-Senj County
  10. Virovitica-Podravina County
  11. Požega-Slavonia County
  12. Brod-Posavina County
  13. Zadar County
  14. Osijek-Baranja County
  15. Šibenik-Knin County
  16. Vukovar-Syrmia County
  17. Split-Dalmatia County
  18. Istria County
  19. Dubrovnik-Neretva County
  20. Međimurje County

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Zagreb
  2. Split
  3. Rijeka
  4. Osijek
  5. Zadar
  6. Slavonski Brod
  7. Pula
  8. Karlovac
  9. Sisak
  10. Varaždin

Education Systems

Education in Croatia is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 15. The country has a well-developed education system, with a high literacy rate and a strong emphasis on higher education. The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is one of the oldest universities in Europe and is considered one of the top universities in Croatia.


Croatia has several international airports, with Zagreb International Airport being the busiest. The country also has an extensive network of highways and roads, connecting major cities and tourist destinations. The railway network is well-developed, with regular services connecting major cities and towns. The five major ports in Croatia are Rijeka, Split, Ploče, Zadar, and Dubrovnik.

Country Facts

  • Population: 4 million
  • Capital: Zagreb
  • Language: Croatian
  • Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic
  • Race: Predominantly Croatian, with ethnic minorities including Serbs, Bosniaks, and others
  • Currency: Croatian Kuna (HRK)
  • ISO Country Codes: ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: HR, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: HRV
  • International Calling Code: +385
  • Top-Level Domain: .hr